I have incurred, throughout the process of writing this book, numerous debts of gratitude. I alone, though, am responsible for any remaining errors of fact or judgment.
My greatest debt, undeniably, is to Theda Skocpol, who provided direction and support from the outset. Her work for me is a model and an inspiration. I also wish to express special thanks to John Campbell, Peter Marsden, Mauro Guillén, and David Frank, who read the manuscript from beginning to end at an earlier stage. While in the Sociology Department at Harvard, I benefited from fruitful exchanges with professors and graduate students, many of whom became friends: Victoria Alexander, Liah Greenfeld, John Hall, Francie Ostrower, Yasemin Soysal, Cynthia Cook, John Glenn III, Meyer Kestnbaum, and Mark Warren. At the Harvard Business School, I wish to thank not only Nitin Nohria and Paul Lawrence but also Thomas McCraw, who invited me to attend the Business History seminar. I learnt a lot, in this seminar, from Alfred Chandler, William Lazonick, and Richard Tedlow amongst others.
Elsewhere in the USA and in Europe, I have accrued debts to many other scholars and colleagues, who gave me invaluable advice, commented on my work, shared their own work, or were highly supportive: Antti Ainamo, Kàroly Balaton, Andrew Creighton, Michael Creswell, Daniel Dayan, Chiarella Esposito, Richard Farnetti, Marc Flandreau, Neil Fligstein, Regina Gramer, Mark Granovetter, Gary Hamilton, Wade Jacoby, Bruce Kogut, Jessica Korn, Richard Kuisel, Maurice Lévy-Leboyer, Charles Maier, Rachel Parker, William Roy, Gerald Salancik, Raymond Saner, Yehouda Shenhav, Marc Ventresca, Richard Whitley, Richard Whittington and Martha Zuber. I would also like to thank, collectively, the Economic History seminar at the OFCE (Organisation Française pour le Commerce Extérieur) in Paris and members of the CEREM (Centre d'Etudes et de Recherche sur les Enterprises Multinationales) at Paris University, Nanterre, for valuable feedback.
Work for this book would never have been possible without the support of a number of institutions. Harvard University has provided me with a congenial environment, a profusion of resources, and funding. The Krupp Foundation in Essen, Germany, has offered me fellowships for research, through the Center for European Studies at Harvard. The staff at the Archives Nationales de France in Paris, at the Monnet Foundation in Lausanne, Switzerland, and at the German Bundesarchiv in Koblenz were particularly helpful, guiding me through their holdings.
At the Ecole Supérieure des Sciences Economiques et Commerciales (ESSEC) in Paris, I wish to thank my colleagues for their unfailing support and in particular Alain Bernard, Laurent Bibard, Alan Jenkins, Jane Salk, Maurice Thévenet, Radu Vranceanu.