had suffered no depletion: Perugia, the Alban
Hills, the Roman Campagna. For him, it was still
the classic, the ideal landscape, still the landscape
painter's supreme challenge and inspiration, the
place he chose to test, and to perfect, his matured
powers as a landscape artist.
G. Inness, "A Painter, on Painting," Harper's New
Monthly Magazine, LVI, February 1878, 460.
"Art Gossip," New York Evening Post, March 31,
The Literary World, III, May 27, 1848, 328.
Cropsey to John P. Ridner, Gaylord's Bridge
( Connecticut), August 24, 1845, Boston Public Library.
Literary World (as in n. 4).
A. Durand, "Letters of Landscape Painting. Letter
II," The Crayon, 1, January 17, 1855, 34.
"Development of Nationality in American Art," Bulletin of the American Art-Union, December, 1, 1851, 138.
The Literary World, x, May 8, 1852, 332.
New York Tribune, May 1, 1852.
G. Strong, The Diary of George Templeton Strong, New York, 1952, II, 122.
I am grateful to Merl M. Moore for this fruit of
his careful search of passport records.
Evening Post (as in n. 3).
"The Chronicle. American Art and Artists," Bulletin of the American Art-Union, August 1, 1851, 80.
J. Taylor, William Page, The American Titian, Chicago 1957, 107.
"Editor's Table. Exhibition of the National
Academy of Design," The Knickerbocker, XLII, July 1853, 96.
Boston Evening Transcript, June 15, 1852. Inness'
passport gave his height as 5′5″.
The Leader [ London], reprinted in The New York
Times, July 14, 1852.
In 1830, another American artist in Italy, Samuel F. B. Morse, described his reaction to a religious
procession: "I could not pull off my hat as they passed;
if it were mere civility I should not object, but it involves acquiescence in what I see to be idolatry and of
course in the street I cannot do it . . . . in the street I
have my rights as a foreigner; no man has a right to interfere with my rights of conscience." In Rome, a soldier knocked off Morse's hat when he did not take it
off. C. Mabee, The American Leonardo: A Life of Samuel
F. B. Morse, New York, 1943, 130. Thomas Cole, who
was presented to the pope in 1842, wrote his wife that "I was pleased with the interview as a matter of curiosity, though I did not think proper to kiss his holiness's
big toe." Whether his scruples were religious or sanitary he did not say. L. Noble, The Life and Work of Thomas Cole, ed.
E. Vessell, Cambridge, Mass., 1964, 241. P. Baker
, The Fortunate Pilgrims, Cambridge, Mass., 1964,
chap. 7, gives a general description and many examples of Americans' responses to Roman Catholicism.
In 1853 Inness exhibited five landscapes at the
National Academy of Design, three of which, including A Bit of the Roman Aqueduct, had Italian titles. A critic
said, " Inness exhibits several elaborate compositions"
(emphasis added). "The Fine Arts. The Exhibition of the
Academy," The Literary World, XII, April 30, 1853, 358. Inness titled one of these paintings Italian Composition.
N. Cikovsky Jr., and
M. Quick, George Inness, Los Angeles, 1985, fig. 5B.
For a fuller discussion of this painting, though
only partly in these terms, see
N. Cikovsky Jr., "George Inness's Lackawanna Valley: 'Type of the
S. Danly and
L. Marx, eds., The Railroad
in American Art, Cambridge, Mass., 1988, 71-91.
Evening Post (as in n. 3).
Evening Post, 4 February 19, 1869.
M. Rothlisberger, "Darstellungen einer tibertinischen Ruine," Zeitschrift für Kunstgeschichte, XLVIII, 1985, 317, figs. 20, 21.
H. James, "A Chain of Cities," Transatlantic
Sketches, Boston, 1875, 221-22.