UNITED STATES CITIES BEFORE 1870
The English origins--The changes brought about by Dutch and indigenous influences--Variety--Origins of the rating system-- Local self-government: its freedom, instinct, and spirit of public service--Further divergences during the Revolution and after-- The crystallization of the legal basis under the written Constitution --Separation of powers as applied to cities: its evolution and results --The interpretation and application of democracy--Decay in the spirit of Public service--Decline in local self-government, and lack of interest in city government principles--Education state-aided, but locally free--Analysis of the situation in 1870: weakness, strength, trends.
§ 1. The period of British rule. The significance of the Colonial period lies in the fact that the basis was then laid through the common sovereignty of Great Britain for many, of the elements still held in common by the cities of the two countries. The great divergence noted to-day did not always exist; and, great as that divergence is, there are left many elements in American cities which are the heritage of Colonial days. Of these similarities, the common legal basis has been the most persistent. The 'rule of law', already crystallized in England, was transferred to her Colonies; and their cities were restricted --at least nominally--to enumerated powers. The English common law became the Colonial common law. However, even in these early days, there were conspicuous____________________