Toxic Debts and the Superfund Dilemma

By Harold C. Barnett | Go to book overview

NOTES

CHAPTER 1
1. This legislation is often referred to by the acronym CERCLA and as the Superfund Act.

CHAPTER 2
1. Information on chemical characteristics presented in this section, unless otherwise stated, is drawn from Epstein, Brown, and Pope, 1982; Miller, 1988; and Sherman and Sherman, 1983.
2. Based on data reported in U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1989, chap. 4. This figure includes both releases and transfers.
3. The percentage contributions of chemical groups to Superfund site problems is taken from U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1984d: 4-12. Contribution is based on the percentage of National Priorities List sites at which the chemical or its feedstock is found. It does not adjust for concentration, toxicity or quantity.
4. Dioxin provides a good example of the uncertainty and politics surrounding identification of toxic substance threats. The presence of dioxin-contaminated soil at the Times Beach site in Missouri resulted in a highly controversial evacuation of that town in 1982. The decision to evacuate was defended by EPA during the 1985-86 Superfund reauthorization hearings (see chapter 8). At that time, experts could not agree on whether the evidence established by tests on small mammals confirmed a health threat to humans. More recently, the paper and pulp industries have conducted their own reevaluation of the scientific evidence and, based on a highly, questionable assessment of this evidence, have waged a public relations campaign to downplay the risks posed by dioxin. They have successfully pressured EPA to review its policy on dioxin despite a new National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health study suggesting that cancer deaths among chemical-plant workers are higher than expected. The NIOSH study also warns that "it is premature to conclude that dioxin is not harmful at low levels of exposure" (as reported in Bailey, 1992).
5. EPA's Toxics-Release Inventory data show that 22.5 billion pounds of chemicals were released or transferred by manufacturing facilities in 1987. In contrast to the earlier studies discussed in the text, TRI data are based on mandatory reporting by industrial firms. The TRI is more reliable in that it is not derived from survey data and extrapolation. Unfortunately, it is not comparable to earlier studies in that it records the quantity or volume of each chemical whereas earlier studies report the volume of a waste stream containing one or more chemicals.
6. Information on petroleum and chemical industry corporations is from Fortune

-283-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Toxic Debts and the Superfund Dilemma
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Tables and Figures xi
  • Preface xiii
  • Acknowledgments xv
  • Toxic Debts - Chapter 1 1
  • Production, Disposal, and Contamination - Chapter 2 9
  • Conflict, Regulation, and the State - Chapter 3 31
  • Congress and the Reagan Epa - Chapter 4 51
  • Superfund and the States - Chapter 5 87
  • Epa Regions: Implementing Superfund - Chapter 6 121
  • Roots of Superfund Failure - Chapter 7 159
  • Redsigning Superfund - Chapter 8 195
  • Ending a Decade of False Starts - Chapter 9 237
  • Solving the Superfund Dilemma - Chapter 10 273
  • Notes 283
  • Bibliography 305
  • Index 317
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 334

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.