Executive Control Processes in Reading

By Bruce K. Britton; Shawn M. Glynn | Go to book overview

4
TYPOGRAPHY AND READING STRATEGY . . . . . .

Robert Waller Institute of Educational Technology The Open University, U.K.

Typography may be broadly defined as "the visual attributes of written language." Although at a certain level of analysis a spoken sentence may be said to be roughly the same as its written equivalent, it is never exactly the same in substance or effect. Writing both diminishes and enhances: diminshes because it offers only a crude and unreliable version of vocal pitch, timing, gesture, and tone; and enhances through spatial organization, graphic emphasis, and through the clues about its origin offered by the tool used to write, whether an aerosol or a computer display. It is typography that has both enhanced and diminished the subtlety of the message.

We can go further and say that there are some kinds of written language that have no spoken equivalent: A table, for example, contains the potential for a large number of interactions between row and column headings. A skilled reader of tables can perceive patterns in the data such as would be impossible should the information be read out aloud -- in the case of a large table, a long and tedious process. The reading of tables demands a greatly more active and purposeful involvement of the reader than does the relatively passive process of scanning Sequential prose -- it is hard to conceive of a bottom-up model of table reading. Instead, as Wright ( 1981) argues, the reading of a table involves the purposeful application of a conscious strategy by a reader in possession of appropriate skills.

____________________
*
Robert Waller is a lecturer in textual communication research at the Open University. His research interests focus on typography and diagrams and he is editor of Information Design Journal.

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Executive Control Processes in Reading
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • List of Contributors ix
  • Introduction xi
  • Acknowledgements xviii
  • Reference xviii
  • 1 - Executive Control in Reading Comprehension 1
  • Acknowledgments 19
  • References 21
  • 2 - Reading and Writing for Electronic Journals 23
  • Acknowledgments 51
  • References 53
  • 3 - Typography and Executive Control Processes in Reading 57
  • Acknowledgments 76
  • References 77
  • 4 - Typography and Reading Strategy 81
  • References 105
  • 5 - Executive Control in Studying 107
  • References 142
  • 6 - The Activation and Use of Scripted Knowledge in Reading About Routine Activities 145
  • Appendix 172
  • References 175
  • 7 - Knowledge Acquisition for Application: Cognitive Flexibility and Transfer in Complex Content Domains 177
  • Acknowledgments 197
  • References 198
  • 8 - Instructional Variables That Influence Cognitive Processes During Reading 201
  • References 215
  • 9 - How Is Reading Time Influenced by Knowledge-Based Inferences and World Knowledge? 217
  • Acknowledgments 249
  • References 250
  • 10 - Remembering Reading Operations with and Without Awareness 253
  • Acknowledgments 274
  • References 275
  • 11 - Characterizing the Processing Units of Reading Effects of Intra- and Interword Spaces in A Letter Detection Task 279
  • Acknowledgments 294
  • References 295
  • Author Index 297
  • Subject Index 305
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