Executive Control Processes in Reading

By Bruce K. Britton; Shawn M. Glynn | Go to book overview

6
THE ACTIVATION AND USE OF SCRIPTED KNOWLEDGE IN READING ABOUT ROUTINE ACTIVITIES

Frank R. Yekovich and Carol H. Walker The Catholic University of America

One of the hallmarks of skilled reading is the ease with which a person comprehends the meaning of a text. Much of the credit for this apparent effortlessness is traceable to the executive control processes that coordinate the functioning of the human cognitive system. Control functions are aspects of cognitive processes that contribute to the achievement of particular reading goals. One such control function is monitoring an ongoing component process in order to assure its successful completion. Another control function is the initiation of a different component process when the current goals of processing either are not being achieved or could be achieved more efficiently. These examples illustrate that executive control functions exhibit sensitivity during reading comprehension and they also have certain responsibilities. The sensitivity of the control system is a function of a reader's goals (e.g., skimming for theme v. learning details), reader skill (e.g., the degree of automaticity of the component processes). and a text's characteristics (e.g., its local coherence). This sensitivity can be seen operating by observing modulations in reading speed (e.g., Cirilo & Foss, 1980), gaze durations on individual words, and/or regressive fixations (see Just & Carpenter, 1980 for a discussion),

Control functions also have numerous responsibilities, such as the coordination of the component reading processes (e.g., prioritizing word identification over lexical access), the coordination and allocation of cognitive resources (e.g., optimizing the use of short-term memory), and the selection and use of knowledge to fill gaps in text (e.g., inserting knowledge into a composite representation of the text and subsequently

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Executive Control Processes in Reading
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • List of Contributors ix
  • Introduction xi
  • Acknowledgements xviii
  • Reference xviii
  • 1 - Executive Control in Reading Comprehension 1
  • Acknowledgments 19
  • References 21
  • 2 - Reading and Writing for Electronic Journals 23
  • Acknowledgments 51
  • References 53
  • 3 - Typography and Executive Control Processes in Reading 57
  • Acknowledgments 76
  • References 77
  • 4 - Typography and Reading Strategy 81
  • References 105
  • 5 - Executive Control in Studying 107
  • References 142
  • 6 - The Activation and Use of Scripted Knowledge in Reading About Routine Activities 145
  • Appendix 172
  • References 175
  • 7 - Knowledge Acquisition for Application: Cognitive Flexibility and Transfer in Complex Content Domains 177
  • Acknowledgments 197
  • References 198
  • 8 - Instructional Variables That Influence Cognitive Processes During Reading 201
  • References 215
  • 9 - How Is Reading Time Influenced by Knowledge-Based Inferences and World Knowledge? 217
  • Acknowledgments 249
  • References 250
  • 10 - Remembering Reading Operations with and Without Awareness 253
  • Acknowledgments 274
  • References 275
  • 11 - Characterizing the Processing Units of Reading Effects of Intra- and Interword Spaces in A Letter Detection Task 279
  • Acknowledgments 294
  • References 295
  • Author Index 297
  • Subject Index 305
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