the relevant variability in the knowledge domain. Systems of instruction must be developed that produce knowledge that can be flexibly adapted to the wide variety of new situations to which it will need to be applied, even at some additional early cost.
We know of no area of human endeavor that lacks an ill-structured aspect. Success in ill-structured areas tends to come only with a considerable accumulation of actual case experience. Application of the learning principles we have proposed has the potential to take material that is either taught poorly or not taught at all (and thus left to the vagaries of haphazard acquisition from "experience" over long periods of time), and, for the first time, make that material directly instructable.
This research was supported in part by Contract No. 400-81-0030 from the National Institute of Education and by Contract No. MDA903-86-K-0443 from the Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences. The senior author would like to express his gratitude to Dr. Paul Feltovich for many helpful discussions related to the topic of this chapter. Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Rand J. Spiro, Center for the Study of Reading, 51 Gerty Dr., Champaign, IL 61820.
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