in verbatim form, and near transfer. Rote learning is characterized by the reverse pattern.
Techniques for guiding attention included a text-based manipulation -- behavioral objectives -- and a reader-based manipulation -- shadowing. Both manipulations produced test performance patterns most consistent with rote learning, suggesting that behavioral objectives and shadowing can serve to focus readers' attention on nonconceptual aspects of a passage.
Techniques for building internal connections included signaling as a text-based manipulation and schema training as a reader-based manipulation. Both manipulations produced test performance patterns most consistent with meaningful learning. Apparently, students can be encouraged to actively build a coherent structure for incoming information.
Techniques for building external connections included advance organizers, concrete models, and conceptual emphasis as text-based manipulations and conceptual elaboration, notetaking, and pretraining as readerbased manipulations. All manipulations involved encouraging the reader to actively connect the incoming information to familiar experience or concrete models. These manipulations produced test performance patterns most consistent with meaningful learning.
These results provide some examples of how it is possible to influence the reader's cognitive processing and the quality of the resultant learning outcome. Some techniques seem to reduce cognitive processes needed for meaningful learning (e.g., behavioral objectives that focus on lowlevel aspects of the passage), whereas others foster cognitive processing needed for meaningful learning (e.g., schema training or concrete advance organizers). If out research studies had focused only on the question of whether instructional manipulations affect how much is learned, we would have found very few effects. However, when we focus on the pattern of performance -- with special attention to different patterns for meaningful versus rote learning outcomes -- some fairly consistent effects emerge.
Brornage B. K., & Mayer R. E. ( 1981). "Relationship between what is remembered and creative problem solving in science learning". Journal of Educationl Psychology, 73, 451-461.
Cook L. K. ( 1982). Instructional effects of text structure-based reading strategies on the comprehension of scientific prose. Doctoral dissertation, University of California, Santa Barbara.
Cook L. K., & Mayer R. E. ( 1983), "Reading strategy training for meaningful learning from prose". In M. Pressley & J. R. Levin (Eds.), Cognitive process research: Educational applications. New York: Springer-Verlag.