By CLARENCE B. LITCHFIELD*
The design of correctional institutions is so closely related to the sociological development of a nation that the architect cannot intelligently design and plan institutions of this kind without a sympathetic understanding of the social ills of the country. "The Penal Institution is a clinic, only one link--a very limited specialized agency in a continuing correctional process" is the concept of Joseph Sanford, President of the American Prison Association and Warden of the U. S. Penitentiary at Atlanta.
The aims, extent and character of our prison and reformatory systems are determined by the constant improvement of various factors--(1) understanding of the fundamental laws of human behavior, (2) environment, including the combinations of home influences, recreational, housing, educational and employment facilities, (3) society's accepted methods of dealing with criminal behavior.
As the sympathetic understanding of behavior problems has increased we have accepted probation and parole, and are continually adopting a more enlightened attitude toward the law breaker. The design and construction of penal institutions have in some instances likewise progressed. The obsolete aim of punishment,____________________