By HENRY V. HUBBARD
City planning--like regional or state or national planning on an ascending scale of size of the areas planned, and neighborhood and site planning on a descending scale of size--is a comprehensive effort, a technique of the relation of many more specific techniques.
Each of us is likely, consciously or unconsciously, to do his thinking on the larger and newer planning problems as if he were looking out from the center of some smaller technique which he already knows intimately. This is natural, but it produces much confusing talk apparently about different competing kinds of planning, when really these are merely different aspects or interlocking parts of one broad problem.
For instance, all city planning is social planning, in that its ultimate purpose is social welfare; it is economic planning in that it takes into account the relative costs and values of the objects and procedures involved. Such planning pursues its social end in one or both of two ways: it aims to change man's environment better to fit the man, this being physical planning, or it aims to change or regulate the man so that he better fits his environment and his fellow man. This latter is regulative planning, or governmental planning if named from the power that regulates, or population or