Organization, in any field, is an instrument, created to facilitate the accomplishment of some end which an individual, working alone, could not accomplish, just as a machine is an instrument, devised with the purpose of increasing man's productive capacities or enlarging his scope. A machine is an organization of inert parts, all of which are essential to the functioning of the whole and all of which are useless except when serving as parts of the whole. Of an organization of men it cannot be said that the parts, human beings, are individually useless; it can, however, be said that the usefulness of each may be immeasurably increased by his working in collaboration with others.
However complex and ingenious a machine may be, it must still be guided to usefulness and productivity by the human mind. In like manner, an organization of human hands and minds must be presided over and guided, if not by a single mind, then, at least, by a common concept and purpose. The effectiveness of the organization will depend upon the essential soundness of the ideas underlying it, and upon the insight and foresight of the mind or minds, directing it. Lack of cooperation between the human beings working in any field means waste and loss of opportunity. Poor organization or incompetent leadership may mean the same, just as an im