I am grateful to many people for their advice and encouragement, and a number of organisations for their support, in the task of completing this book.
I will begin by thanking those whose generous financial assistance made this work possible. In chronological order, these were, first, the Centre for European Law at King's College London, which provided the initial grant enabling me to embark on the research. Secondly, Rädda Barnen (the Swedish Save the Children organisation) supported this work up to completion of a first draft. In particular, I am indebted to Sven Winberg of Rädda Barnen for his interest and encouragement, and to Thomas Hammarberg and Simone Ek. Finally, the most substantial financial assistance was provided by way of a grant for Research and Writing from the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation in Chicago, and this enabled me to devote almost two years of full-time work to completing this project. I am most grateful to George Lopez of that Foundation for his encouragement and guidance.
Next, I must thank my former colleagues at the Children's Legal Centre in London, for agreeing to the sabbatical in which I began work on this book. I am also grateful to those whom I met through the Children's Legal Centre, and who initially supported my funding applications. These include: Nigel Cantwell, former Director of Programmes of Defence for Children International; David Boyd, barrister; Sir James Hennessey, former Chief Inspector of Prisons; Mark Soler, Director of the San Francisco Youth Law Centre; and Vivien Stern, former Director of the National Association for the Care and Resettlement of Offenders, London.
As regards the substance of the research, I owe thanks for his constant support to Philippe Sands, who supervised the Ph.D on which this book is based. I also greatly appreciated the interest and suggestions of Professor Christopher Greenwood of the London School of Economics (LSE) and Françoise Hampson of Essex University, who examined my Ph.D. Further, I am very grateful, for their suggestions concerning particular aspects of the research, to Jane Connors of the School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS), London, and Angela Bedford, formerly of King's College London. In addition, Michael Meyer of the British Red Cross and Professor George Kent of the University of Hawaii made a number of useful comments in the early stages of this work.
Professor Rosalyn Higgins, then at the LSE, was very helpful in providing occasional advice on aspects of human rights law. Dr Werner Menski of