part of his growth: "The good news that great
sculpture brings us is that man is perfectible, that
the animal in him can be the instrument, not the
foe, of the spirit."
47 "Sculpture is not a matter of
surfaces." Like philosophy, it is a synthetic art; it
is the realm of the "patent expectancy," of "eternal memory" -- in sum, of the archetype. The language of sculpture is silence: "Statues speak by
gesture; and we must be silent to understand." If,
as Coleridge discovered at the beginning of the nineteenth century, Rome is "the silent city," it is
especially the city of the "white silence" of the
statues, which incarnate the archetypes and speak
Among other analyses of American images of Italy as Arcadia, see Travelers in Arcadia: American
Artists in Italy, 1850-1875, edd.
E. P. Richardson and O. Wittmann Jr., Detroit and Toledo, 1951; V. W. Brooks
, The Dream of Arcadia: American Writers and
Artists in Italy, 1760-1915, New York, 1958; A. Lombardo
, "Il sogno d'Arcadia," Il diavolo nel manoscritto, Milan, 1974; B. Novak, "Arcady Revisited;
Americans in Italy," Nature and Culture: American
Landscape and Painting, New York, 1980; Twilight of
Arcadia: American Landscape Painters in Rome,
J. W Coffey, Brunswick, Me., 1987.
See the essays in this volume by Professors Staley, Hevner, Staiti, and Parry.
G. Perrotta, Storia della letteratura greca, Milan, 1960, 387. See also L. Fiorentino, Teocrito, Milan, 1970, and S. F. Walker, Theocritus, Boston, 1980.
The best analysis of Pan's ambiguity and its
extremely significant psychological implications is in J.Hillman and
W. H. Roscher, Pan and the Nightmare.
Two Essays, Zurich, 1972. See also P. Merivale, Pan,
the Goat-God: His Myth in Modern Times, Cambridge, Mass., 1969.
G. Leopardi, "The Lonely Life," Poems of G.
F. Townsend, New York and London, 1887, 65. See also "The Infinite,"ibid., 56.
C. Segal, Poetry and Myth in Ancient Pastoral:
Essays on Theocritus and Virgil, Princeton, N.J., 1981; D. M. Halperin, Before Pastoral. Theocritus and the
Ancient Tradition of Bucolic Poetry, New Haven, Conn., 1983.
Paris, National Library, Cabinet des Médailles et
Antiquités, second century A.D. Cf. R. Graves, Greek
Myths, Harmondsworth, 1962 ( 1st ed. London, 1958); G. Prampolini, La mitologia nella vita dei popoli II, Milan, 1942, 198-200.
N. Hawthorne, The Marble Faun, New York, 1961
( 1st ed. 1860), 15.
Cf. Virgilio nell'arte e nelia cultura europea, ed. M. Fagiolo, Rome, 1981.
Dante, Purgatory, Cantos 7-8.
W. Iser, Spenser's Arcadia: The Interrelation of
Fiction and History, Berkeley, Calif. 1980.
L. Marx, The Machine in the Garden, Oxford, 1964. See G. Inness, The Lackawanna Valley, Washington, D.C., 1855.
J. Sannazaro, "A la Sampogna,"10-11, in Arcadia (1504); cf. Opere volgari, ed.
A. Bari Mauro, 1961; see also Arcadia and Piscatorial Eclogues, trans. R. Nash, Detroit, 1966.
E. A. Poe, "Sonnet: To Science," The Complete
Tales and Poems, ed.
H. Allen, New York, 1938, 992.
G. Toffanin, L'Arcadia: Saggio storico, Bologna, 1958.
Bierstadt was at Olevano and in the Campagna
in the 1850s. Later he chose to paint the "grand
scenarios" of the American West. In a letter of his, the
Rockies are compared to the Bernese Alps, a landscape
of sublime and picturesque Arcadia. W Whittredge
found an Arcadian landscape in New Mexico; H. T. Tuckerman
observed that his Old Hunting Ground
( 1864, Winston-Salem, N.C., Museum of American
Art) had "been well called an idyll"; cf. H. T. Tuckerman
, Book of the Artists, New York, 1867, 58.
J. G. Chapman, Harvesters on the Roman Campagna