|•||Hackney, Inc., Dallas, TX|
|•||Ladish Co., Inc., Cudahy, WI|
|•||Mills Iron Works, Inc., Gardena, CA|
|•||Steel Forgings, Inc., Shreveport, LA|
|•||Tube Forgings of America, Inc., Portland, OR ( U.S. International Trade Commission, 1994a, 1995b)|
These companies alleged both dumping and countervailing duty violations. Neither of the two target companies responded to the commerce department's petition, so were assessed dumping margins of 203.63%, using the best information available criterion. This case is typical of most cases investigated by the commerce department. The targeted companies often do not respond because of the onerous reporting and disclosure requirements, so the commerce department makes up its own figures, often with the help of the domestic producers that filed the antidumping petition. Another common feature of antidumping actions is that they are initiated at the request of domestic producers that feel the heat of competition from the targeted foreign producers.
This action was initiated by the U.S. Pipe Nipples Group, which alleged that Mexican pipe nipples sold in the U.S. market are being, or are likely to be, sold for less than fair value and that these imports are materially injuring, or threaten material injury to a U.S. industry ( U.S. International Trade Commission, 1994d). After examining a number of comparative price data, the commerce department determined that the dumping margins ranged between 1.71% and 92.64%.
This investigation drew a lot of press attention, both because it involved a total of 21 countries and because of its obvious protectionist flavor. Basically, the steel industry in the United States asked the commerce department to launch an investigation against foreign producers in most of the major countries that produced flat-rolled carbon steel products ( U.S. International Trade Commission, 1992a, 1993b).
In its preliminary investigation, the commerce department found Brazil and Mexico to be guilty of countervailing duty violations because they received subsidies from their respective governments. Brazilian and Mexican companies were also found guilty of dumping their products on the U.S. market. Argentina was found not guilty. The investigation was later dropped.
This investigation was launched as the result of a petition filed by the Floral Trade Council of Haslett, MI, which alleged that fresh cut roses from Colombia and Ecuador were being sold on the U.S. market for less than fair value ( U.S. International Trade Commission, 1995a). The International Trade Commission