Greek Oratory: Tradition and Originality

By Stephen A. Usher | Go to book overview

two trials out of one' (85).48 The simple conclusion to draw from this is that the defendant's case is shaky, but this would ignore the particular circumstances of the trial. The new trial would be a δίκη φόνου, which unless special conditions obtained for aliens, would be held before the Areopagus, which consisted mostly of senior ex- officials who might be less susceptible to the popular prejudice that was rife in the Heliaea, and more likely to judge in strict accordance with the law. In particular, they might take an unfavourable view of the prosecution's killing one of their main witnesses, while the passage of time might weaken the impact of his evidence. In spite of these particular circumstances, however, the line taken in the epilogue does suggest that this was a difficult defence, and the publication of the speech displayed Antiphon's talents at their most acute.


ANTIPHON: SUMMARY

The three court speeches of Antiphon show clear advances on the Tetralogies in technique, style, and use of topoi. All three prooemia contain innovations. In 1, charged emotion centres around abhorrence at conflict between relations. In 1 and 5, the opponents' abuse of slaves' evidence is examined in two extended procatasceuai ( 1. 5-12, 5. 8-19). The prooemium of 6 contains the first summary of the plan of a speech. In that of S the standard topoi are invested with stylistic adornment, notably antithesis and parison; and the plea for a fair heating is amended to a captatio benevolentiae.

Narrative, a relatively minor feature of the Tetralogies, comes into its own, especially in 1. It is used to supply not only facts but motives, and pathos is injected into it at climactic moments. In 5 the bare facts are told in separate narratives in order to draw the necessary arguments most effectively from each. Interweaving of narrative and argument is no less cleverly used in 6, where there is also a more direct attack on the opponent's character.

Antiphon's reputation as both pioneer and perfecter of argument from probability arises chiefly from its prominence in 5, a case

____________________
48
To this variant of the topos of blaming the opponent for initiating litigation, one may add the ideas that the defendant faces greater danger than the prosecutor (89) and the speaker's confidence in the jury (93), all usually found in prooemia rather than epilogues.

-40-

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Greek Oratory: Tradition and Originality
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page *
  • Preface vii
  • Contents ix
  • List of Abbreviations x
  • I - The Early Rhetorical Tradition 1
  • 2 - Antiphon 27
  • Antiphon: Summary 40
  • 3 - Andocides 42
  • Andocides: Summary 52
  • 4 - Lysias 54
  • Isocrates Logographos 118
  • 5 - Isaeus 127
  • Isaeus: Summary 169
  • 6 - Demosthenes Logographos (part I) 171
  • 7 - Demosthenes Logographos (part Ii) 244
  • Demosthenes: Summary 277
  • 8 - Aeschines 279
  • Aeschines: Summary 294
  • 9 - Isocrates Sophistes 296
  • 10 - Lycurgus 324
  • Hyperides 328
  • II - Ceremonial Oratory 349
  • 12 - Conclusion 353
  • Appendix A the Tetralogies: Date and Authorship 355
  • Appendix B 360
  • Select Bibliography 369
  • Index of Speeches 377
  • General Index 379
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