The Triumph of Variability: Haydn's Articulation Markings in the Autograph of Sonata No. 49 in E Flat
This study is not devoted to Haydn's autograph performance markings as such.1 Instead, I will focus specifically on certain aspects of his markings, aspects that editors and performers alike tend to find problematical--indeed to describe in overtly unflattering terms like 'ambiguity', 'incompleteness', and 'inconsistency'. I will argue that, on the contrary, no deficiencies are entailed: that these characteristics not only are inherent in and proper to Haydn's principles of notation, but when understood in this manner become part of the musical substance itself, in an active and positive sense. Indeed, this 'substantive' function of his articulative variability is consistent with fundamental aspects of his musical style.
Central to my argument is the belief that source studies, analysis, and performance are mutually interrelated, as the three primary domains through which we can come to know a piece of music.2 For example, performers____________________