Decentralizing Urban Policy: Case Studies in Community Development

By Paul R. Dommel; John Stuart Hall et al. | Go to book overview

CHAPTER FIVE
Chicago, Illinois

LEONARD RUBINOWITZ

THE "CITY THAT WORKS" was born in 1833. From that time until the end of the nineteenth century, Chicago was the fastest growing city in the world. Even the great Chicago fire of 1871 could not stem the tide. The city's location made it the hub of a railroad network, a logical place for the stockyards, and a magnet for people and industry; but its growth was not to continue indefinitely. Around 1950 Chicago's population peaked at about 3.6 million.1 From then until 1975, the relevant date for this case study, the city's population declined slowly to an estimated 3.1 million, while its suburbs experienced enormous growth.2


The People and Their Prospects

The black population of Chicago remained well below 10 percent until the mid-1940s, but has grown steadily since then. By 1950 blacks accounted for about 14 percent of the city's population, and during the 1960s, as the number of whites declined by 500,000, the blacks increased by 290,000.3 In 1970, 1.1 million blacks lived in Chicago, representing 33 percent of the city's total population of 3.4 million.4 The city's Latino

____________________
1
U.S. Bureau of the Census, Census of Population, 1950, Number of Inhabitants, Final Report PC(2)-A13, Illinois ( Government Printing Office, 1952), table 6.
2
The pace of the decline seems to be quickening--less than 2 percent from 1950 to 1960, over 5 percent from 1960 to 1970, and an estimated 8 percent from 1970 to 1975. U.S. Bureau of the Census, Census of Population, 1970, Number of Inhabitants, Final Report PC(1)-A15, Illinois ( GPO, 1973), table 6; and Bureau of the Census, Current Population Reports, series P-25, no. 661, "1973 (Revised) and 1975 Population Estimates and 1972 (Revised) and 1974 Per Capita Income Estimates for Counties and Incorporated Places in Illinois" ( GPO, 1977), p. 1.
3
The growth rate of the city's black population may have decreased because of a slowing of in-migration from the South and a reduction in the birthrate. U.S. Bureau of the Census, Census of Population, 1970, Characteristics of the Population, Final Report PC(1)-B15, Illinois ( GPO, 1963), table 23; and ibid. ( GPO, 1963), table 21.
4
City of Chicago, Department of Development and Planning, Chicago's Black Population: Selected Statistics ( City of Chicago, 1975), p. 5.

-120-

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Decentralizing Urban Policy: Case Studies in Community Development
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Foreword vii
  • Contents ix
  • Chapter One - Introduction 1
  • Chapter Two - Legislating and Implementing a Block Grant 13
  • Conclusion 45
  • Chapter Three - Phoenix, Arizona 47
  • Conclusion 79
  • Chapter Four - Houston, Texas 84
  • Chapter Five - Chicago, Illinois 120
  • Chapter Seven - Carbondale, Illinois 195
  • Conclusion 220
  • Chapter Eight the Process and Its Outcomes 223
  • Conclusion 240
  • Chapter Nine Decentralization: A Moving Target 243
  • Index 265
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