Animal Cognition: Proceedings of the Harry Frank Guggenheim Conference, June 2-4, 1982

By H. S. Terrace; H. L. Roitblat et al. | Go to book overview

spatial tasks. A second task variable might be responsible for variations in resistance to retroactive interference from delay-interval stimulus changes. In conventional delayed conditional discrimination tasks, the to-be- remembered stimuli are rather simple (a colored pecking key, for example). In spatial tasks, the functional, extramaze cues are multidimensional (e.g., a window, a relay rack, the experimenter). In the spatial task, then, the memory trace is likely to be richer (composed of more attributes) than in the delayed conditional discrimination task. The resulting redundancy might then provide some measure of protection against interference from delay- interval stimuli in the spatial task. Now the challenge is to construct a theory of working memory from which the effects of task variables can be deduced. If it is to cope with these and other facts (e.g., Beatty & Shavalia, 1980a; Shavaliaet al., 1981). such a theory is likely to be much more complex than the simplistic model of memory maintenance embodied in Equation 1.


IV. SUMMARY

Tasks like delayed matching-to-sample can be used to assess working memory in animals. Performance is accurate to the extent that the subject remembers a conditional stimulus (the sample) throughout a retention interval (delay). A common finding is that a change in delay-interval stimuli reduces matching accuracy (retroactive interference). One interpretation of retroactive interference 'earlier formulated holds that novel delay-interval stimuli capture some of the animal's limited attentional capacity thereby detracting from rehearsal of the sample memory and permitting trace decay. In its simple form, the rehearsal hypothesis fails to predict two sets of phenomena described in this chapter. First, with sufficient training, pigeons' delayed matching performance recovered from the initially detrimental effects of a change in delay-interval illumination. The rate of recovery was faster if the change occurred early than if it occurred late in the delay. Recovery from light interpolated early in the delay produced faster recovery from subsequent whole-delay illumination than did recovery from light interpolated late in the delay. Second, using a large T-maze, pigeons were found to perform delayed alternation well at long delays and to rely on extramaze cues. Memory for spatial locations exhibited in these experiments was resistant to potential sources of retroactive interference like changes in delay-interval illumination. At the present time, recovery from and resistance to retroactive interference remain problems for a theory of working memory.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The author's research described in this chapter was supported by grant RO1-MH3 1432 from the National Institute of Mental Health. I thank Becky Aaland, Curt Borchert, Laurel Knoell. Rebecca Nelson, Robin White, and particularly Kathryn Bengtson and Deborah Olson for their assistance with and contributions to many aspects of the work.

-130-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Animal Cognition: Proceedings of the Harry Frank Guggenheim Conference, June 2-4, 1982
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 684

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.