Animal Cognition: Proceedings of the Harry Frank Guggenheim Conference, June 2-4, 1982

By H. S. Terrace; H. L. Roitblat et al. | Go to book overview

reinforcement ( Shimp, 1982a). The procedure of the present experiment is much simpler than the symbolic matching-to-sample procedure and seems as convenient and easy to arrange as the autoshaping procedure. Thus, we now have three ways by means of which we can ask a nonverbal organism to provide self reports of its own temporally patterned behavior.

An important next stop would seem to be to ask what kind of integrative theory can assimilate the present dissociation. That is, why, as preference becomes more extreme, does the animal appear to know less and less about what it is doing. This result seems counter-intuitive. It would seem natural for an animal, as two response alternatives become more difficult for it to discriminate, to care less about the difference between them: for example, Baum ( 1974) has suggested that undermatching in concurrent performance is attributable to a failure to discriminate perfectly between response alternatives. Here, however, the opposite result was obtained: as the subject knew less and less about the two response alternatives, it cared more and more about the difference between them.

The present dissociation, and related dissociations between behavior and metabehavior in pigeons ( Shimp, 1983) may be related to various other dissociations, such as those obtained with split brain preparations and amnesiacs. Similarly it might be related to dissociations between perceptual-motor skills in general and verbal self reports of those skills ( Nisbett & Wilson, 1977; Jacoby & Dallas, 1981) and perhaps also to dissociations between various levels of intentionality as described by Dennett ( Dennett, 1983).


V. SUMMARY

An experiment was conducted on the local organization of behavior in rats in order to examine the generality of previous work on pigeons' key pecking, Lever pressing by two rats was reinforced according to a concurrent schedule of reinforcement for shorter and longer classes of interresponse times. Shorter and longer reinforced classes were terminated by presses on left and right lovers, respectively, and were cued by illumination changes within the chamber: the two reinforced behavioral patterns differed not only in temporal duration but also in the spatial location of their terminal lever presses. The interresponse-time distributions showed reasonably good control by the durations of the reinforced classes. As in previous experiments with pigeons, preference between patterns depended not only on relative but also on absolute durations of the patterns: preference for the shorter pattern increased as the absolute durations of both were increased, even though the longer was always three times as long as the shorter. This result has proven to be theoretically diagnostic and apparently has considerable empirical generality. Finally, the procedure permitted a kind of self-description by a rat of its own performance: the temporal patterning of behavior may be viewed as a skill, and the relative frequency with which a given temporal pattern is terminated by a response to the correct lever may be viewed as the

-226-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Animal Cognition: Proceedings of the Harry Frank Guggenheim Conference, June 2-4, 1982
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 684

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.