Animal Cognition: Proceedings of the Harry Frank Guggenheim Conference, June 2-4, 1982

By H. S. Terrace; H. L. Roitblat et al. | Go to book overview

task with variable list lengths of one to six items.


A. PIGEON AND MONKEY SERIAL PROBE RECOGNITION EXPERIMENTS WITH 1-6 ITEM VARIABLE LIST LENGTHS

1. Procedure. The number of list items in each trial could be 1, 2, 3, 4, or 6 items. The experiment consisted of 216 unique trials (108 Same trials and 108 Different trials) which were constructed from 864 unique items. Because the Kodak Carousel projectors hold only 140 items these trials were distributed into six different carousel projector trays. They were actually pairs of trays but are referred to here as tray 1, 2, 3, etc. The list and probe items were in separate trays and projected onto separate screens. List items were projected onto an upper screen and probe items onto a lower screen. Image size was 18.4 cm horizontal by 12.4 cm vertical. The screens were spaced 16 cm center to center and were at a distance of approximately 50 cm from the monkeys and 62 cm from the pigeons. The pigeons viewed the stimuli through a large (8.75 cm square) and thin Plexiglass center pecking key. Two choice keys were located on either side of the center pecking "window." A peck on the red right one was a Same response and a peck on the green left one was a Different response. Monkeys moved a lever to the right (Same) or left (Different) to indicate their choice responses. Pigeons initiated trials by a center key peck and monkeys by pressing down on a 3-position lever. Both were cued by a ready "clicker" signal. The six different trays of items were run in blocks with different orders within each block. The items were presented for 1-sec for the monkeys and 2-sec for the pigeons with a 1-sec delay between list items. Following the lost list item a probe item was presented following a delay of 1-sec for the monkeys and a 0.5-sec for the pigeons. A 3-sec intertrial interval separated successive trials. All correct responses were rewarded (grain for pigeons, orange juice or banana pellets for monkeys). All incorrect responses were punished with a time out (with house light turned on) of 10-sec for monkeys and 6-sec for pigeons. The entire set of 216 trials were usually conducted daily with each of the monkeys and pigeons. Occasionally, only a portion of the set was conducted, and training resumed the next day at the position in the set where it had been terminated the day before.

2. Results.Figure 20.3 shows the average performance for the three monkeys (Joe, Max, and Linus) and the three pigeons which were run in this experiment. The monkeys began at better than chance performance and showed a gradual and steady increase in performance eventually reaching better than 90% correct after 7,200 trials. Their initial performance of 63% correct is not terribly surprising, considering that just previous to this experiment they were performing very accurately in a Same/Different task and had revealed nearly perfect transfer performance in a test with novel items. The pigeons, on the other hand, showed no signs of acquiring 1-6 item variable list length serial probe recognition task even after more than 2,300 trials. Their performance stayed near chance performance (52% correct). The pigeons too had performed accurately in the Same/Different task and had been given training identical to the monkeys. The pigeons, however, did not transfer well to novel

-357-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Animal Cognition: Proceedings of the Harry Frank Guggenheim Conference, June 2-4, 1982
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 684

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.