Animal Cognition: Proceedings of the Harry Frank Guggenheim Conference, June 2-4, 1982

By H. S. Terrace; H. L. Roitblat et al. | Go to book overview

27 THE ECOLOGY AND BRAIN OF TWO- HANDED BIPEDALISM: AN ANALYTIC, COGNITIVE, AND EVOLUTIONARY ASSESSMENT

Alexander Marshack Harvard University


I. THE ADAPTIVE "POTENTIAL VARIABLE CAPACITY"

The papers at this conference on animal cognition explore selected, measurable or observable aspects of species memory, problem-solving capacity and neurological function. To that extent they are inquiries into the range and variety of species potential capacity. The capacities and behaviors being studied and measured, however, do not represent the range of adaptive capacities and behaviors used in the wild or that range of potential capacities available to a species, of which only a part can be used in any temporal context. In biological evolution, natural selection probably occurs as much for the range of "potential variable capacity" as for the structures of morphology and the patterned structures of species behavior.

Cognition itself represents a particular aspect of species adaptive capacity, that aspect which is not dependent on genetically coded or programmed behaviors but on a variable, if constrained, neurological response to the phenomena, patterns and structures of the real world. Potentially variable adaptive capacities and systems exist, of course, at the simplest evolutionary levels but, with development of the chordates, vertebrates, mammals, and primates, these become increasingly complex, variable and specialized. Given sufficient functional data, a species can probably be described and defined as much by the nature and range of its potentially variable capacity and behavior as by the more traditional categories of morphology and observed patterns of behavior in the wild. The problem is crucial to the following discussion of hominization as an aspect of natural selection for an increase in the specialized "potentially variable capacity" of an early pongid.


II. POTENTIAL VARIABLE CAPACITY IN HOMINIZATION

If the process of hominization, beginning some five or more million years ago, represented the branching of a potentially now species and the incipient development of now modes or levels of adaptive behavior, then the range of cognitive capacities involved must have been derived and

-491-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Animal Cognition: Proceedings of the Harry Frank Guggenheim Conference, June 2-4, 1982
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 684

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.