voters but also in the ranks of Republican lawmakers. Beginning in 1933, New York
adopted a series of reforms designed specifically to aid women and child workers. Despite
a temporary setback as a result of the Tipaldo decision, the state successfully offered the
first guarantee of minimum wages for New Yorkers. It also initiated the gradual abolition
of industrial homework, which had long produced some of the country's worst
sweatshops. Although New York failed to ratify the federal child labor amendment, the
state improved its own restrictions on child labor by raising the minimum school--leaving
age from fourteen to sixteen. All these reforms expanded the Welfare State by
guaranteeing minimum standards for the protection of particular groups in the industrial
Elinore M. Herrick, "Brief in Support of Minimum Wage Legislation," [ 1933], pp. 7-9,
copy in "Wages and Hours-Standard Wage Act, New York" folder (hereinafter referred
to as "Wages and Hours--SWA, NY"), National Consumers' League Papers (hereinafter
referred to as NCL Papers), Library of Congress; Frances Perkins, "The Cost of a
Five-Dollar Dress," Survey Graphic, XXII ( February 1933): 75-78; Rita S. Halle, "Lucky
to Have a Job," Scribner's Magazine, LXLIII ( April 1933): 235-38; John T. Flynn, "Starvation Wages: The Plight of the Employed," The Forum, LXXXIX ( June 1933): 327-31.
"Minutes of Conference on Breakdown of Labor Standards," January 9, 1933, pp. 2-3, "Consumers' League of New York," Reel 21, GP, HHLP.
"Minutes of Meeting; What Concerned Action Can Do About It, December 1932,
folder 17, Mary W. Dewson Papers, Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe College.
Mabel Leslie to Lucy Mason, February 3,1933, "Wages and Hours--SWA, NY," NCL
New York Herald Tribune, March 3, 1933, "Factual Brief for Appellant," p. 32, Morehead
v. New York ex rel. Tipaldo, in U.S. Briefs, 1935 (396).
Herrick, "Brief in Support of Minimum Wage Legislation," pp. 5-8; Josephine Goldmark, "The New Menace in Industry," Scribner's Magazine, LXLIII ( March 1933): 141-43.
New York Times, December 16, 1950; Josephine Goldmark, Impatient Crusader: Florence
Kelley's Life Story ( Urbana, Ill, 1953), pp. 82-83, 143-49; Robert H. Bremner, From the
Depths: The Discovery of Poverty in the United States ( New York, 1956), pp. 232-33; Clement E. Vose, "The National Consumers' League and the Brandeis Brief," Midwest
Journal of Political Science, I ( November 1957): 267-90; Muller v. Oregon, 208 U.S. 412
Mary W. Dewson to Isador Lubin, April 16, 1957, folder 17.1, Dewson Papers (Radcliffe).
James T. Patterson, "Mary Dewson and the American Minimum Wage
Movement," Labor History, V (Spring 1964): 150.
Despite a thorough survey of the problem, New York failed to enact a minimum wage law
during this period.
Thomas J. Kerr, IV, "The New York Factory Investigating
Commission and the Minimum Wage Movement," ibid., XI (Summer 1971): 373-386.
Alice S. Cheyney, "The Course of Minimum Wage Legislation in the United States," International Labor Review, XXXVIII ( July 1938): 26-27; Adkins v. Children's Hospital, 261 U.S. 525 ( 1923).