Dexterity and Its Development

By Michael T. Turvey; Nicholai A. Bernstein et al. | Go to book overview

Essay3
On the Origin of Movements

THE GREAT COMPETITION OF LIFE

No natural phenomenon can be understood without carefully considering how it emerged. The main reason is that everything in the world is a chain of causes and consequences, and most important, everything continuously changes, develops, and dies. Each fact in the world has its own biography, the study of which is vital for discussing that fact. Even among people, from the very best to the very worst representatives of humanity to understand the creations of a great poet, one needs to know the story of his life; in order to pronounce a fair sentence for a thief, one must analyze his miserable biography.

Everything lives and changes. Only 200 years ago, the universe itself was considered an embodiment of eternity and invariability. In fact, it is full of life and changing literally in front of our eyes. During the short life of astronomy, we have witnessed the birth of young, giant red stars, growing and acquiring brilliance. The photographic plates of the observatories show elderly stars that have already lived through their 20 billion years, ruby dwarfs, cooling and shrinking like hot metal in a foundry. Animate nature is even more replete with changes, and these changes help us understand the concealed meaning of events, because they are closer to us and we feel being a part of them. Thanks to works of the great founders of contemporary biology, we are aware of one of the major driving forces of these perpetual changes in nature. We know that these changes represent continuous development, continuous movement forward, and this development takes place in conditions of a harsh, merciless struggle for life. All the

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Dexterity and Its Development
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Resources for Ecological Psychology ii
  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Preface vii
  • Resources for Ecological Psychology ix
  • Series Dedication x
  • Part I on Dexterity and Its Development 1
  • Introduction 3
  • Essay 1 What Is Dexterity? 9
  • Essay2 on Motor Control 25
  • Essay3 on the Origin of Movements 45
  • Essay 4 on the Construction of Movements 97
  • Essays 5 Levels of Construction of Movements 115
  • Essay 6 on Exercise and Motor Skill 171
  • Essay 7 Dexterity and Its Features 207
  • From the Author 237
  • Part II Commentaries 245
  • N. A. Bernstein: the Reformer of Neuroscience 247
  • References 275
  • The Bernstein Problem: How Does the Central Nervous System Make Its Choices? 277
  • On the Biomechanical Basis of Dexterity 305
  • Dynamics of Bernstein's Level of Synergies 339
  • Dexterity in Cascade Juggling 377
  • Change in Movement and Skill: Learning, Retention, and Transfer 393
  • Further Reading 429
  • The Primacy of Action in Development 431
  • References 450
  • Author Index 453
  • Subject Index 457
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