The Colloquy of Montbeliard: Religion and Politics in the Sixteenth Century

By Jill P. Raitt | Go to book overview

burg sixty years earlier, refused the hand of brotherhood to the Swiss Reformed. Won over to Lutheranism, Count Frederick told the exiles that they would have to sign not only the Augsburg Confession but also the Formula of Concord drawn up by Andreae in 1577. The Formula of Concord reaffirmed the 1530 version of the Augsburg Confession and condemned Calvinists by name. There is no indication that the German princes altered their policies in either direction because of the colloquy.

And what of the people of Montbéliard and the French exiles settled there? Did they capitulate and become Lutherans? No. Instead they accepted the French exiles as bourgeois of Montbéliard. Many of them traveled to Basel to receive communion and even to bear their children so that they could be baptized by Reformed rather than Lutheran ministers. Frederick fulminated against their disobedience and against their continual petitions asking him to allow them to have their own confession of faith. The tug-of-war continued into the seventeenth century, when Montbéliard became Lutheran.

This book presents the Colloquy of Montbéliard as a paradigm of the problems that resulted from the political and religious fragmentation that dominated the second half of the sixteenth century. It does so not only in terms of theological differences but also by indicating the influence of those theological differences on political alliances and hence on the development of the nations of Europe.


Notes
1.
Original autograph, Public Records Office, London, Reference nos. PFNF 25CL; SP 81/3/PT-1, and summarized in Calendar of State Papers, Foreign Series of the Reign of Elizabeth, vol. 20, 297-99. (I owe the following transcription to Glenn Sunshine. The manuscript is extremely difficult to read due to the cramped hand of Lobetius. The translation is my own.) P. 1: "Vous desirez de sçavoir mon opinion touchant ce qu'on / doiz esperer des P[rinces] protestans / en Allemaigne, pour le bien commun et pour maintenir la cause commune, contre / ceulx qui leur sont adverseyres, pour quoy ce prendre je vous diray, que je / souhaiterris avoir occasion de plus esperer que je n'ay faict cy devant. On a à / la verite esté foit froide jusques à present, et tresdifficilz a eschauffer, nonobstant / les diligence dont on a usé."
2.
For corroboration of the information in Lobetius's letter and on the effort of Queen Elizabeth to form a Protestant League, see chap. 2, p. 45 (with n. 3) and 54-56.
3.
Namely, the Roman Catholics and the followers of the Augsburg Confession. See discussion about the struggle of the Lutherans to exclude the Calvinists from the Peace of Augsburg and of the Calvinists to insist that they too were followers of the Augsburg Confession.
4.
Jacques de Ségur-Pardaillan was one of Henry of Navarre's most trusted counselors, his chargé d'affaires and minister of finance. See Recueil des Lettres Missives de Henri IV, vol. 2: 1585-1589, ed. M. Berger de Xivrey ( Paris: Imprimerie Royale, 1843), esp. 119, 184. See p. xl: "Au mois de juillet [ 1583] une vaste correspondance en latin commence avec tous les princes protestants de l'Europe. Le roi de Navarre leur envoie comme ambassadeur Jacques de Ségur-Pardaillan, pour solliciter leur appui en faveur des Français de la même communion."

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The Colloquy of Montbeliard: Religion and Politics in the Sixteenth Century
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Acknowledgments v
  • Contents vii
  • Foreword ix
  • Abbreviations xiii
  • Introduction 3
  • Notes 10
  • 1 - Ancient Liberties and Evangelical Reform 11
  • Notes 32
  • 2 - The Political Background 45
  • Notes 60
  • 3 - The Lord's Supper 73
  • Notes 100
  • 4 - The Person of Christ 110
  • Notes 126
  • 5 - Images, Baptism, and Predestination 134
  • 6 - Aftermath (1): Polemics and Politics 160
  • Notes 176
  • 7 - Aftermath (2): The Larger Scene 187
  • Notes 192
  • Appendix 1 Appendix: in Which Is Taught, What Was Done, Regarding the Communication and Protest of the French Exiles After the Colloquy of Montbéliard 197
  • Notes 201
  • Appendix 2 - Instrument 203
  • Appendix 3 207
  • Note 210
  • Bibliography of Works Cited 211
  • Index 221
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