The Colloquy of Montbeliard: Religion and Politics in the Sixteenth Century

By Jill P. Raitt | Go to book overview

purely polemical and so need not receive further comment with regard to the issues discussed at Montbéliard. In fact, Andreae claimed in his preface to the Latin edition that he had been a faithful minister for forty-two years and that during that time and to his last breath he had and would detest the errors and blasphemies of the Calvinists.

But it was Beza who had the last word. Andreae died in 1590, and in 1593, Beza published a pacific treatise, De controversiis in Coena Domini, 82 which he dedicated to "those who follow the Augustana."83 In this carefully reasoned, noncondemnatory explanation of the Reformed doctrines of the Lord's Supper 84 and the two natures of Christ, Beza tried to point out in what ways the Lutherans misunderstood Reformed theology and in how many areas they agreed with one another.

It is not surprising, then, that Andreae alarmed Beza and his colleagues by demanding that the colloquy be continued to include subjects for which the Swiss were unprepared since they had not been told that they would discuss more than the Lord's Supper. Against Beza's protests, the colloquy proceeded to three more items: the destruction of churches; music, and statues in the churches; baptism; and predestination.


Notes
1.
See chap. 3 for the debate over the manducatio oralis and the communicatio idiomatum in the context of the Lord's Supper.
2.
See p. 122, n. 57.
3.
See p. 122, n. 60.
4.
See chap. 6, pp. 164-65.
5.
Triglot Concordia, 1014-15, Thorough Declaration of the Formula of Concord [hereafter Thor. Decl.], VIII.
6.
Triglot Concordia, 1018ff., Thor. Decl. Xllff. These passages lead into a discussion of the two natures of Christ.
7.
Triglot Concordia, Thor. Decl. VIII, 31ff.
8.
For a careful interpretation of Luther's doctrine of the communicatio idiomatum, see Siggins, Martin Luther's Doctrine of Christ, 221-40.
9.
Triglot, 1042-45, Thor. Decl. VIII, 76ff. The interpretation given in the preface (183-84) is not upheld by the text itself. The attitude of the writer of the preface is clear when he insists that Calvin is a Zwinglian (174).
10.
"Property" is used in the technical scholastic sense of an attribute that belongs uniquely to a particular nature (or, in the case of created beings, species) and that cannot be communicated to another nature. The example given by Aristotle and used by medieval theologians is that "human beings are rational animals." The property, or specific difference, separating human beings from all other creatures and indeed from God is reason. Reason is here taken to mean that process of thinking that moves from one premise through another to arrive at a conclusion. This is a process unique to embodied souls. The intellectual powers of nonbodied spiritual beings such as God and the angels operate through intuition. God knows all in a single, simple act of knowing. In medieval angelology, the ranks of angels are determined by the number of ideas required for them to know what they know. The higher angels understand more

-126-

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The Colloquy of Montbeliard: Religion and Politics in the Sixteenth Century
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Acknowledgments v
  • Contents vii
  • Foreword ix
  • Abbreviations xiii
  • Introduction 3
  • Notes 10
  • 1 - Ancient Liberties and Evangelical Reform 11
  • Notes 32
  • 2 - The Political Background 45
  • Notes 60
  • 3 - The Lord's Supper 73
  • Notes 100
  • 4 - The Person of Christ 110
  • Notes 126
  • 5 - Images, Baptism, and Predestination 134
  • 6 - Aftermath (1): Polemics and Politics 160
  • Notes 176
  • 7 - Aftermath (2): The Larger Scene 187
  • Notes 192
  • Appendix 1 Appendix: in Which Is Taught, What Was Done, Regarding the Communication and Protest of the French Exiles After the Colloquy of Montbéliard 197
  • Notes 201
  • Appendix 2 - Instrument 203
  • Appendix 3 207
  • Note 210
  • Bibliography of Works Cited 211
  • Index 221
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