The Colloquy of Montbeliard: Religion and Politics in the Sixteenth Century

By Jill P. Raitt | Go to book overview

7
Aftermath (2): The Larger Scene

At the close of the colloquy, Count Frederick seemed to have been won over to the Lutheran side and continued to refuse to allow the French refugees to receive communion without first signing a Lutheran confession. Certainly Frederick became more and more adamant about confessional unanimity in Montbéliard and expressed considerable anger at the continued request of the French refugees to follow their own confession and, when they were not allowed to do so, their migrations to Basel and elsewhere to receive the sacraments from Reformed ministers. 1 Nevertheless, what appears to have been the larger purpose of the colloquy, namely, German support of Henry of Navarre and the Huguenots, was not lost. Frederick himself became, if anything, more active on their behalf.

In April 1586, Frederick led a contingent of German princes to the court of Henry III of France to plead for the Huguenot cause. The colloquy had not deterred Frederick, but Henry III's cool, even discourteous reception, or rather lack of reception, of the German delegation was more chilling. 2 The German princes reminded Henry of the duty of a prince to keep his word, which Henry III had not done when he broke the peace with the Treaty of Nemours. They found it strange, moreover, that Henry, in his letter of October 22, 1585, blamed the Reformed for the ensuing war since it was Henry's edict of July 1585 that established the "Religion Romaine" as the only religion of France and decreed the exile of the Reformed. The German princes assured Henry that they sought only his good since the pope was clearly trying to obtain power over the Gallican church. 3 If Henry wished to reestablish peace, the Protestants would help him. Henry III replied to the ambassadors on October 11, 1586, telling them that as king he knew how to govern his people and, like other sovereigns, preferred to do so without interference. 4 The rough answer given the German ambassadors seemed to increase Frederick's zeal, however, since he found the French court was still under the powerful sway of the too-powerful Guise. More than ever, the Huguenots, as fellow Protestants, required Frederick's help.

During the months following the colloquy, Frederick continued to allow the Huguenots to use his territories as one of the staging grounds for Henry of Navarre and Casimir to gather Swiss and German mercenaries who would be sent from there into France. 5 In November 1586, Henry of Navarre commis-

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The Colloquy of Montbeliard: Religion and Politics in the Sixteenth Century
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Acknowledgments v
  • Contents vii
  • Foreword ix
  • Abbreviations xiii
  • Introduction 3
  • Notes 10
  • 1 - Ancient Liberties and Evangelical Reform 11
  • Notes 32
  • 2 - The Political Background 45
  • Notes 60
  • 3 - The Lord's Supper 73
  • Notes 100
  • 4 - The Person of Christ 110
  • Notes 126
  • 5 - Images, Baptism, and Predestination 134
  • 6 - Aftermath (1): Polemics and Politics 160
  • Notes 176
  • 7 - Aftermath (2): The Larger Scene 187
  • Notes 192
  • Appendix 1 Appendix: in Which Is Taught, What Was Done, Regarding the Communication and Protest of the French Exiles After the Colloquy of Montbéliard 197
  • Notes 201
  • Appendix 2 - Instrument 203
  • Appendix 3 207
  • Note 210
  • Bibliography of Works Cited 211
  • Index 221
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