Caballé, Montserrat (b Barcelona, 12 Apr. 1933). Spanish soprano. Studied Barcelona with Eugenia Kemmeny and Annovazzi. Début Basle 1936 (First Lady). Basle 1956-9; Milan, S, 1960 ( Flowermaiden) and from 1969 in major roles; New York, Carnegie H, 1965 ( Lucrezia Borgia (from which dates her international fame)); New York, M, 1965: Gly. 1965 ( Mozart's Countess and R. Strauss's Marschallin); London, CG, from 1972. Her wide repertory includes much Bellini and Donizetti, Verdi, and Rossini; also the roles of Manon Lescaut, Mimi, Tosca, Tatyana, Adriana Lecouvreur, Salome, Isolde. Physically strong and musically sensitive, she is, with her limpid tone, impeccable messa di voce, and vocal versatility, a consummate singer. (R)
Caccini, Francesca (b Florence, 18 Sept. 1587; d ? Florence, after 1637). Italian singer, composer, and teacher, daughter of Giulio *Caccini. Her La liberazione di Ruggiero dall'isola d'Alcina ( 1625), written for the visit of Prince Władisław Zygmunt of Poland to the Tuscan court, was one of the earliest operas not to have a mythological plot, and the first known opera by a female composer. Its subsequent performance in Cracow was of seminal importance for the development of opera in Poland.
Caccini, Giulio (b Rome or ?nr. Tivoli, 8 October 1551; d Florence, 10 Dec. 1618). Italian singer, lutenist, harpist, composer, and teacher. He was active at the Medici court from around 1564, and contributed to the music for the famous intermedi to Bargagli's La pellegrina ( 1589): he was also a prominent member of the Bardi *camerata.
An early and influential exponent of *stile rappresentativo, in 1600 he made settings of librettos by Chiabrera ( Il rapimento di Cefalo) and Rinuccini ( Euridice). Peri, who used the latter text for his own Euridice opera (also 1600), acknowledged that some of the music had been provided by Caccini; though the score of Caccini's version appeared in 1600, and was the first opera to be published, it was not performed until 1602. Later, Caccini was to claim priority over Peri as the 'inventor' of the operatic style.
Caccini's greatest monument is the collection of monodic pieces, Le nuove musiche ( 1602), whose very title expresses the mood of inventiveness characteristic of Florentine musicians at this time. Its preface is a cogent summary of their objectives; by drawing on his comprehensive understanding of vocal technique, Caccini produced music of considerable flexibility and eloquence. Such was its popularity that a second collection was published in 1614.
Caccini's family was closely involved with his musical activities. Both of his wives, Lucia and Margherita, were singers, as were his two daughters, Settimia ( 1591-1638), who married the Mantuan composer Alessandro Ghivizzani (c. 1572-c. 1632) and created the role of Venus in Monteverdi Arianna in Mantua ( 1608), and Francesca *Caccini.
Cachemaille, Gilles (b Orbe, 25 Nov. 1951). Swiss baritone. Studied Lausanne Cons. and appeared in concert from 1978. Début in first staged Boréades ( Lyons 1982). His well- schooled voice and fine comic timing are much admired in Mozart (e.g. Guglielmo at Lausanne; Leporello at Houston, Hamburg, and Vienna S; Giovanni at Gly. 1994). (R)
Caddy, Ian (b Southampton, 1 Mar. 1947). English bass- baritone. Studied London, RAM (President's Prize 1970) and later with O. Kraus. Debut Gly. Touring O 1973 ( Schaunard, La bohème). Kent O 1976. London, ENO from 1976, CG 1982-5. Also Houston; Nantes; O North; Scottish O; Wexford; WNO: etc. Repertory includes Count ( Capriccio and Figaro), Falke ( Fledermaus), Hunding ( Walküre), Pooh-Bah ( Mikado), but best-known for stylish performances in baroque roles, esp. at English Bach Festival (Purcell's Aeneas, Rameau's Pollux). A versatile singer with a resonant voice and a strong dramatic presence. (R)
cadenza (It.: 'cadence'). An elaborate flourish ornamenting a cadence at any point in an aria. Before the 19th cent., these were usually improvised by the singer, but from Rossini onwards, composers began to write out their preferred versions.
Cadman, Charles Wakefield (b Johnstown,