Kabaivanska, Raina (b Burgas, 15 Dec. 1934). Bulgarian soprano. Studied Sofia with Prokopova, Milan with Fumagalli-Riva, Vercelli with Tess. Début Sofia 1957 (Tatyana). Milan, S, from 1961; London, CG, and New York, M, 1962-3, 1979-80; Paris, O, from 1975; also Vienna, Chicago, Buenos Aires, etc. An expressive singer and effective actress, notably in the verismo repertory, e.g. as Nedda, Adriana Lecouvreur, Butterfly. Tosca. (R)
Kabalevsky, Dmitry (b St Petersburg, 30 Dec. 1904; d Moscow, 14 Feb. 1987). Russian composer. Studied Moscow with Catoire and Myaskovsky. His successful career, including official positions in publishing and administration, also included composition in many genres, including opera. His first, Colas Breugnon ( 1938), has become well known for its sparkling overture; others include works responding to contemporary events, such as In the Fire ( 1943), on the defence of Moscow against the Germans. He also rewrote one work, ' The Taras Family ( 1947), in the wake of the 1948 decree, which he supported, attacking formalism in Soviet music.
Kabanicha. Marfa Kabanov (con), widow of the rich merchant Kabanov and hence known as Kabanicha, in Janac+̆ek Káa Kabanovd.
Kálmán, Emmerich (orig. Imre) (b Siófok, 24 Oct. 1882; d Paris, 30 Oct. 1953). Hungarian composer. Studied Budapest with Koessler and first won attention as a composer of serious music. Music critic of the Pesti Napló 1904-8, before the success of a cabaret, written under a pseudonym, turned him towards lighter music. In 1908 his first operetta, Tatárjárás ( 1908), was given in Budapest, and shortly afterwards in Vienna, to great acclaim and was followed by other successes, including Der Zigeunerprimas ( 1912) and Der kleine König ( 1912).
Although Kálmán drew inspiration from stylized features of Hungarian life and music, his main model was the Viennese operetta of Johann Strauss and Lehár. Following his first successes he settled in Vienna and, while not as consummate a melodist as Lehár, secured a loyal and enthusiastic following. His greatest triumph and most enduring work was Die Csárdásfürstin ( 1915), which was followed by eight more operettas for the Viennese stage, of which Gräfin Mariza ( 1924) and Die Herzogin von Chicago( 1928) were best received. After the rise of Nazism Kálmán emigrated, first to Paris, and then to the US, where he was already known through his music for Golden Dawn ( 1927) and where he found further favour with Marinka ( 1945). His last work, Arizona Lady ( 1954), was completed by his son Charles Kálmán (b Vienna, 17 Nov. 1929), himselfa composer of musicals.
Kalnins+̆, Jānis (b Pernav, 3 Nov. 1904; d Riga, 23 Dec. 1951). Latvian composer. Studied with his father, the composer and organist Alfréds Kalnis+̆ ( 1879-1951), and Riga with Vitols. Music advisor and cond. Riga, Nat. T, 1923-33; cond. Nat. O 1933-44; then emigrated to US.
Kalomiris, Manolis (b Smyrna, 14 Dec. 1883; d Athens, 3 Apr. 1962). Greek composer. Studied Athens with Xanthopoulos, Constantinople with Spanoudi, Vienna with Grädener. Very active and influential in the development of modern Greek music; founded Hellenic Cons. 1919, dir. until 1926; founded Nat. Cons. dir. until 1948; chairman Nat. O 1950-2. His most successful operas, The Shadouy Waters( 1950) and The Mother's Ring ( 1917), show his warm Romantic idiom and his understanding of how the example of the Russian nationalists could help the cause of an independent Greek musical style.
Kamieήski. Maciej (b ?Sopron or Magyar Ovar, 13 Oct. 1734; d Warsaw, 25 Jan. 1821). Polish composer of Slovak origin. Composed the first publicly performed Polish opera, Misety Made Happy, in 1778. His music reflects contemporary European influences, with some native ingredients.
Kamenny Gost. See STONE GUEST, THE.
Kammersänger(in) (Ger.: 'chamber singer'). High honorary title given by German and Austrian governments to distinguished singers. Originally the title was