Sabata, Victor de. See DE SABATA, VICTOR.
Sabbatini, Giuseppe(b Rome, 11 May 1957), Italian tenor. Studied Accademia di S Cecilia, Rome. Début Spoleto 1987 (Edgardo). A well-placed voice and dignified stage-
bearing have made him successful in such roles as Rodolfo, Werther, and Alfredo throughout Europe and in Chicago. London, CG, from 1990 (Duke of Mantua, Arturo, Lensky). (R)
Sacchini, Antonio (b Florence, 14 June 1730; d Paris, 6 Oct. 1786). Italian composer. Studied Naples with Durante, where his intermezzos Fra Donato ( 1756) and IL giocatore ( 1757) brought him to early attention. Taught Naples (Cons. S Maria di Loreto) 175662; dir. of the Cons. dell'Ospedaletto, Venice 1768-72. During this time he established a glowing reputation as an opera composer, above all with L'Olimpiade ( 1763) and IL finto pazzo per amore (The Lover Feigned Madman, 1765), both in Italy and elsewhere. In 177281 he worked in London, where his operas were well received; because of debt he fled to Paris in 1781, where he was quickly drawn into the controversy between Gluck and Piccinni. Though at first hailed as a new weapon for the Italian faction, fierce rivalry soon developed between him and Piccinni. Neither Renaud ( 1783) nor Chimène ( 1783), were well received, nor was Dardanus, in which he tried more consciously to imitate the style of the tragédie lyrique. Only after the posthumous performance of Œdipe à Colone ( 1786), a work which owes much to Gluck's example, were his talents recognized by the French public.
As a student, Sacchini was regarded by Durante as Italy's brightest operatic hope, a judgement which was borne out in part by his later popularity. But though his opere serie represent the culmination of the 18thcent. tradition, they largely suffer from the same dramatic weaknesses as those of his contemporaries. The height of his art is seen in the French operas, particularly Œdipe, where skilful use of the chorus and a more flexible approach to the aria permit more satisfactory reconciliation of dramatic and musical aims.
Sachs. Hans(b Nuremberg, 5 Nov. 1494; d Nuremberg, 19 Jan. 1576). Poet and Mastersinger. He is the composer of 13 Meistertöne and the author of several thousand poems, prose dialogues, comedies, and tragedies. His poem Die Wittenbergisch Nachtigall hailing Luther and the Reformation, and beginning 'Wach auffl es nahent gen dem tag', is set in part by Wagner as a salute to Sachs himself in Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg ( 1868). Here Sachs appears as the wise old cobbler-poet (bs-bar). He is also, as a younger man, the hero of Lortzing Hans Sachs ( 1840), which is based on the Deinhardstein play drawn on by Wagner. Also Singspiel by Gyrowetz, Hans Sachs im vorgerackten Alter ( 1834), and three Hans-Sachs Spiele by Behrend ( 1949).
Sack, Erna (b Berlin, 6 Feb. 1898; d Wiesbaden, 2 Mar. 1972). German soprano. Studied Berlin with Daniel. Début Berlin, SO, 1925 (as contralto). Coloratura soprano from 1930. Berlin, S, 1933, London, CG, 1936, Chicago 1937. Also Milan, S; Paris, O; and world-wide tours. Roles included Rosina, Lucia, first Isotta ( Die schweigsame Frau). Had a voice of phenomenal range, for which Strauss wrote several cadenzas in Zerbinetta's aria. (R)
Sacrad, Francesco (b Parma, bapt. 17 Sept. 1605, d ? Modena, 20 May 1650). Italian composer. Worked in Venice from c. 1640, where he composed five operas. 1648 moved to Bologna; 1649 maestro di cappella Modena Cathedral.
The rediscovery of Sacrati La flnta pazza (The Feigned Madwoman) brought to light one of the earliest works in the Venetian repertory, in which the style of Cavalli and Cesti is to some extent prefigured. Performed in Paris 1645, it was one of the first Italian operas to be seen in France. A case has been argued, with some conviction, that Sacrati was responsible for much of the Poppea score usually attributed to Monteverdi.
Sadko. Opera-legend in 7 scenes by RimskyKorsakov; text by composer and V. I. Belsky, after folk legends. Prem. Moscow, private theatre, by Solodovnikov Co., 7 Jan. 1898.
The wanderings of the minstrel Sadko