signed to increase the options of people to participate in
personal and institutional networks that best satisfy their
needs. The strategies directed toward place will also be
required because many of those confined to place have few
other options of where to live.
The research findings are important because they
provide insights into the complicated nature of community
in an urban setting. They also show how productive
avenues of research into this question can be fashioned
in terms of a choice-constraint framework as well as the
use of social network analysis to pinpoint the actual location of people's different communities of action. Clearly, further research, specifically action-oriented research,
is needed to determine which types of strategies work best,
and under what conditions, to sustain strengths and to
enhance the existing social and institutional structure of
urban neighborhoods and the support systems of their residents.
For a discussion of neighborhood policy in the Carter and Reagan administrations, see Susan E. Clarke, "Neighborhood Policy Options: The Reagan Agenda", Journal of the American Planning Association 50, 4(Autumn 1984): 493-501.
See John L. Palmer and
Isabel V. Sawhill, The
Reagan Experiment( Washington, D.C.: Urban Institute Press, 1982); U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, The President's National Urban Policy Report( Washington,
D.C.: Superintendent of Documents, 1982); and Roger S. Ahlbrandt Jr.
, "Ideology and the Reagan Administration's
First National Urban Policy Report", Journal of the American
Planning Association 50, 2 (Autumn 1984): 479-84.
For a detailed discussion of neighborhood self-
help activities, see Howard J. Sumka, "Neighborhood Self-
Help", paper presented at the Annual Meetings of the American Planning Association, Minneapolis, Minn., May 1984.
The National Commission on Neighborhoods,
People Building Neighborhoods: Final Report to the President and the Congress of the United States ( Washington,
D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1979); President's
Commission on Mental Health, Task Panel Report Submittedto the President's Commission on Mental Health