|1.||Robert A Nisbet, "The University Had Better Mind Its Own Business," Psychology Today, IV ( March 1971), 22.|
|2.||F A. Long, "Interdisciplinary Problem-OrientResearch in the University," Science, CLXXI ( March 12, 1971), 961.|
|3.||"The RANN program could mark the beginning of a change in federal support for science in the universities. Or it could wind up as a fiasco in NSF management--one on the order of the Mohole Project." NSF: Is Applied Research at the Take Off Point? Science, CLXXII ( June 25, 1971), 1315.|
|4.||Clark Kerr, The Uses of the University ( Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1963), p. 87.|
|5.||Readers interested in a much more detailed account of the evolution of SUP to 1967 should consult Launching NASA's Sustaining University Program, by W. H. Lambright, with the assistance of E. A. Bock; and The NASA Memoandum of Understanding, by Laurin Henry. Both case studies were prepared under a NASA grant and published in limited editions in 1969 by the Inter-University Case Program, Inc.|
|6.||The universities that received facilities grants and signed memoranda of understanding included Stanford, Chicago, Iowa, California (Berkeley), Minnesota, MIT, Colorado, California (Los Angeles), Rennselaer Polytech, Wisconsin, Michigan, Pittsburgh, Denver, Texas A&M, Maryland, Rice, Cornell, Purdue, NYU, Washington (St. Louis), Georgia Tech, Arizona, Illinois, and Brooklyn Tech.|
|7.||Homer Morgan, et al., A Study of NASA University Programs ( Washington, D.C.: NASA, 1968), p. 58.|
|8.||"Science Policy: An Insider's View of LBJ, DuBridge, and the Budget," Science, CLXXI ( March 5, 1971), 874, 875.|
|9.||Public Law 91-121, Title II, Sec. 203 ( Nov. 19, 1969).|
|10.||Edward E. David Jr. "The Integrity of Purpose," an address delivered November 2, 1971; reprinted in Science Policy Reviews, IV (No. 4, 1971), 13-20.|
|11.||Gapor Strasser has argued that although the universities produced a great amount of useful defense and space research in the 1950s and 1960s, they lagged in developing the concepts of systems engineering needed to integrate knowledge for the solution of complex new problems--that sort of thinking was done by the non-profits end sophisticated consulting firms. Accordingly, says Strasser, we may again have to look to the "think-tanks" to produce the "orchestrators" of research needed to handle the social and environmental problems of the 1970s. "What Is In Store for our Scientific Technological Establishment?", Science Policy Reviews, IV (No. 4, 1971), 3-12.|
|12.||Long, op. cit.|
|13.||U.S. House of Representatives, Committee on Science and Astronautics, Subcommittee on Science, Research, and Development, Hearings, National Science Policy ( Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1970), pp. 141, 142.|
Robert B. Denhardt.★ Exploring political alternatives.
Unlike acts of power, which are usually observable if not even highly visible, the definitions of power in a society lie beneath the political surface, emerging fully only in times of crisis. However, only where a particular version of societal power--including its content, its acquisition, and its limits--is maintained, can a governmental system be said to exist. For this reason governments employ many devices to ensure the continued acceptance of certain basic assumptions. In this way, civic education--the process of acquiring political orientations through encounters with political reality-- becomes crucial to the distribution of social power.
In The Eclipse of Citizenship. Pranger suggests a distinction between two forms of civic education. The first, "political socialization," is "that political truth which is mediated by groups and their members" ( Pranger, 1968: 43); the second, "political education," on the other hand, emphasizes "the free man armed with enough political sophistication to participate in politics as a____________________