Is America Necessary? Conservative, Liberal, & Socialist Perspectives of United States Political Institutions

By Henry Etzkowitz; Peter Schwab | Go to book overview
to cooperate as the old arrangements and the old programs (such as SUP) give way to the new. A continuation of the research partnership is in the interest of government and the university. The futures of both are at stake.
NOTES
1. Robert A Nisbet, "The University Had Better Mind Its Own Business," Psychology Today, IV ( March 1971), 22.
2. F A. Long, "Interdisciplinary Problem-OrientResearch in the University," Science, CLXXI ( March 12, 1971), 961.
3. "The RANN program could mark the beginning of a change in federal support for science in the universities. Or it could wind up as a fiasco in NSF management--one on the order of the Mohole Project." NSF: Is Applied Research at the Take Off Point? Science, CLXXII ( June 25, 1971), 1315.
4. Clark Kerr, The Uses of the University ( Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1963), p. 87.
5. Readers interested in a much more detailed account of the evolution of SUP to 1967 should consult Launching NASA's Sustaining University Program, by W. H. Lambright, with the assistance of E. A. Bock; and The NASA Memoandum of Understanding, by Laurin Henry. Both case studies were prepared under a NASA grant and published in limited editions in 1969 by the Inter-University Case Program, Inc.
6. The universities that received facilities grants and signed memoranda of understanding included Stanford, Chicago, Iowa, California (Berkeley), Minnesota, MIT, Colorado, California (Los Angeles), Rennselaer Polytech, Wisconsin, Michigan, Pittsburgh, Denver, Texas A&M, Maryland, Rice, Cornell, Purdue, NYU, Washington (St. Louis), Georgia Tech, Arizona, Illinois, and Brooklyn Tech.
7. Homer Morgan, et al., A Study of NASA University Programs ( Washington, D.C.: NASA, 1968), p. 58.
8. "Science Policy: An Insider's View of LBJ, DuBridge, and the Budget," Science, CLXXI ( March 5, 1971), 874, 875.
9. Public Law 91-121, Title II, Sec. 203 ( Nov. 19, 1969).
10. Edward E. David Jr. "The Integrity of Purpose," an address delivered November 2, 1971; reprinted in Science Policy Reviews, IV (No. 4, 1971), 13-20.
11. Gapor Strasser has argued that although the universities produced a great amount of useful defense and space research in the 1950s and 1960s, they lagged in developing the concepts of systems engineering needed to integrate knowledge for the solution of complex new problems--that sort of thinking was done by the non-profits end sophisticated consulting firms. Accordingly, says Strasser, we may again have to look to the "think-tanks" to produce the "orchestrators" of research needed to handle the social and environmental problems of the 1970s. "What Is In Store for our Scientific Technological Establishment?", Science Policy Reviews, IV (No. 4, 1971), 3-12.
12. Long, op. cit.
13. U.S. House of Representatives, Committee on Science and Astronautics, Subcommittee on Science, Research, and Development, Hearings, National Science Policy ( Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1970), pp. 141, 142.

Liberal

Robert B. Denhardt. Exploring political alternatives.

Unlike acts of power, which are usually observable if not even highly visible, the definitions of power in a society lie beneath the political surface, emerging fully only in times of crisis. However, only where a particular version of societal power--including its content, its acquisition, and its limits--is maintained, can a governmental system be said to exist. For this reason governments employ many devices to ensure the continued acceptance of certain basic assumptions. In this way, civic education--the process of acquiring political orientations through encounters with political reality-- becomes crucial to the distribution of social power.

In The Eclipse of Citizenship. Pranger suggests a distinction between two forms of civic education. The first, "political socialization," is "that political truth which is mediated by groups and their members" ( Pranger, 1968: 43); the second, "political education," on the other hand, emphasizes "the free man armed with enough political sophistication to participate in politics as a

____________________
"Exploring Political Alternatives," by Robert B Denhardt is reprinted from Teaching Political Science Vol. 2 ( Jan 1975), pp. 212-226 by permission of the publisher, Sage Publications, Inc.

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Is America Necessary? Conservative, Liberal, & Socialist Perspectives of United States Political Institutions
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page i
  • Preface ix
  • Contents xi
  • Introduction 1
  • Part One 15
  • 1 - Where Do I Stand? 17
  • Conservative 21
  • Conclusion 28
  • Socialist 44
  • Notes 46
  • Part Two 57
  • 2 - The Presidency 61
  • Conservative 67
  • Socialist 79
  • Notes 85
  • 3 - The Pentagon 101
  • Conservative 107
  • Socialist 117
  • 4 - The Secret Police 133
  • Conservative 139
  • Socialist 152
  • Notes 160
  • Part Three 167
  • 5 - Elite Clubs and Associations 169
  • Conservative 173
  • Notes 184
  • Notes 192
  • 6 - Multinational Corporations 209
  • Conservative 213
  • Socialist 221
  • Notes 244
  • 7 - Organized Crime 257
  • Conservative 259
  • Socialist 264
  • Part Four 283
  • 8 - Congress 285
  • Conservative 289
  • Socialist 296
  • Notes 303
  • 9 - The Courts 315
  • Conservative 319
  • Socialist 330
  • Notes 337
  • 10 - Regulatory Agencies 347
  • Conservative 349
  • Socialist 361
  • Notes 369
  • Political Parties 385
  • Conservative 387
  • Liberal 396
  • Conclusion 410
  • 12 - Academia 413
  • Conservative 416
  • References 427
  • Notes 434
  • Part Five 449
  • 13 - The Media 451
  • Conservative 453
  • Liberal 467
  • Notes 474
  • 14 - Banks 483
  • Conservative The Great Banking Retreat. 485
  • Socialist 489
  • Notes 497
  • 15 - Unions 511
  • Conservative 513
  • Notes 519
  • A Critical Issue 537
  • 16 - The Economic Crisis 539
  • Conservative 542
  • Socialist 544
  • Notes 550
  • Part Seven 557
  • 17 - Political Programs 567
  • Louis Banks. the Mission Of Our Business Society. 568
  • Ralph Nader and Donald Ross. Toward an Initiatory Democracy. 576
  • Stanley Aronowitz. On Organization: A Good Party Is Hard to Find. 581
  • Mass Parties and Reformism 587
  • Notes 596
  • Fred R. Harris. Up With Those Who'Re Down. 602
  • Part Eight 613
  • Appendix 621
  • Note 644
  • Index 649
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