by the most powerful consolidation of labor's forces ever known in the United States.
In that direction lies the triumphant industrial organization of the American workers and the road to industrial emancipation.
The twenty-two years which lie between Homestead and Ludlow embrace a series of bloody and historic battles in the class war in the United States.
The battle between the organized steel workers and the Carnegie-Pinkerton thugs which stirred the whole nation occurred on July 1, 1892; the Rockefeller massacre at Ludlow, which shocked the world, on April 20, 1914.
In recalling Homestead I have been struck by the similarity of methods employed there and at Ludlow to crush the strikers, and by some other features common to both that have suggested a review of Homestead in the light of Ludlow, that we may the better understand their historic connection and at the same time see Ludlow in the light of Homestead.
As Ludlow is so recent and so vivid in the public memory and its horrors still so fresh in the minds of all, I need not review this appalling industrial massacre here, but will occupy the space in reviewing the essential facts about Homestead for the purpose of study and comparison.
Andrew Carnegie incarnated triumphant and despotic capitalism at Homestead in July, 1892, just as John D. Rockefeller did at Ludlow in April, 1914.
Carnegie, reducing the wages of the four thousand employees in his steel mills from 15 to 40 percent, transforming his mills into forts, with three hundred Pinkerton hirelings armed with Winchester rifles in command, fled to his castle in Scotland to escape the storm about to break. In vain was he appealed to by the whole country to cable the word that would end the bloody conflict, exactly as John D. Rockefeller, twenty-two years later, refused to utter the word that would have prevented the massacre at Ludlow.
That was and is Carnegie, who, with Rockefeller, is famed as a philanthropist, but whom history will pillory as cold-blooded murderers.____________________