Recent Advances in Science: Physics and Applied Mathematics

By Morris H. Shamos; George M. Murphy | Go to book overview

Electronuclear Machines

LELAND J. HAWORTH


Introduction

Electronuclear machines, more generally called particle accelerators, have played a vital role in the development of nuclear science and technology. Although we shall be concerned primarily with the basic principles, the design, and the performance of the machines themselves, it will be useful to begin with a brief description of this role.

Although it is possible to glean much information by observing the interactions of whole nuclei with atomic and with externally applied electric and magnetic fields, detailed knowledge of internal structure, the forces between constituent elementary particles, the internal energy states, etc., can best be studied by methods in which nuclei are disturbed internally, either spontaneously or by bombardment with energetic particles or photons. It is the function of the particle accelerators to provide these bombarding particles.

Before the advent of particle accelerators, intranuclear experiments were confined to the use of naturally radioactive substances and cosmic rays. Detailed observations had been made of the various radioactive chains of the heavy elements by Becquerel, the Curies, Rutherford, and many others. Energetic particles derived from radioactive sources had also been used for secondary purposes, notably Rutherford's scattering experiments leading to the Rutherford-Bohr atom and observations of artificial transmutation of elements, also first accomplished by Rutherford in 1919. A mass of observational data had been acquired through cosmic rays, but they are few in number and complex in composition, and they cannot be controlled arbitrarily. It was difficult or impossible to perform controlled and quantitatively accurate experiments, and the neutron, a fundamental constituent of compound nuclei, had not yet been discovered. By analogy with the extranuclear case, and from the observations already made, it was recognized that a source of con-

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Recent Advances in Science: Physics and Applied Mathematics
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Authors ii
  • Title Page iii
  • Foreword v
  • Preface ix
  • Contents xi
  • Methods of Applied Mathematics 1
  • The Future of Operations Research 15
  • Atomic Structure 27
  • Microwave Spectroscopy 47
  • Nuclear Structure and Transmutations 67
  • Elementary Particles 115
  • Electronuclear Machines 137
  • Neutron Physics 197
  • Transistor Physics 213
  • Ferromagnetism 253
  • Cryogenics: Very-Low Temperature Physics And Engineering 293
  • Physics and the Engineer 349
  • Index 361
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