Buddhist Monks and Monasteries of India: Their History and Their Contribution to Indian Culture

By Sukumar Dutt | Go to book overview

NOTES ON THE TEXT
In reading the text, the following points should be taken note of:
(i) Use of Pali and Sanskrit forms of words
In the present work a number of words will be found either in Pali or in Sanskrit form. The general principle which has been followed in this matter is to take the form which appears in the source drawn upon, Pali or Sanskrit. The language of Theravāda Buddhism is Pali, while that of later Hīnayānist schools (e.g. Sarvāstivāda) and of Mahāyāna Buddhism is Sanskrit. A considerable number of terms, relating to the religion, is common in Pali and Sanskrit variants. "'Buddhist Sanskrit'", however, is not exactly "'Classical Sanskrit'" and Franklin Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit ( Yale University Press, 1953) is a standard work on the subject.

Below are a few examples of variants between Pall and Sanskrit:

P. Ācariya--S. Ācārya; P. Amata--S. Amṛta; P. Bhikkhu--S. Bhikṣu; P. Bhatti--S. Bhakti; P. Cetiya--S. Caitya; P. Dhamma-- S. Dharma; P. Hammiya--S. Harmya; P. Magga--S. Mārga; P. Paññā--S. Prajñā; P. Pātimokkha--S. Prātimokṣa; P. Saṅghakamma--S. Saṅghakarma; P. Satthā--S. Śāstā; P. Thūpa-- S. Stūpa; etc.


(ii) References in the Footnotes
The system of reference in the footnotes is as follows:
a. (a) Original texts in Pall and Sanskrit are referred to by chapter and paragraph (e.g. Mahāvagga, I. II, I; Mahāparinibbāna Suttanta, III, 8; Dīpavaḿsa, 5, 52; Chāndogya, 2, 23; Pāini III, 2, 97; Mahābhāṣya, III, 1, 26).
b. (b) For published works, excepting well-known and standard ones (like Rhys Davids' Buddhist India, Nanjio Catalogue of the Chinese Tripitaka, etc.), the author's name, the name of the publisher and the edition or the year of publication are given in the earlier references, but in later references only the author's name and an abbreviated title, as Beal Buddhist Records, (Nilkanta) Sastri Comprehensive History, Ray Chaudhuri Political History, Lüders' List, etc.
c. (c) Cross references axe given according to Part and Section of the work (e.g. Part II, sec. 3).
d. (d) In order to avoid repeating myself, I have made some references to my two earlier titles-- Early Buddhist Monachism, published in 1924 by Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner and Co. in Trübner's Oriental Series; and The Buddha and Five After-Centuries, published by Luzac and Co. in 1957.

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