French Civilization in the Nineteenth Century: A Historical Introduction

By Albert Léon Guérard | Go to book overview

CONTENTS
CHAPTER ITHE FOUNDATIONSPAGETHE COUNTRY--THE RACE--THE TRADITION17
§ 1. THE COUNTRY .--The theory of environment -- France: situation--Size--Historical connection with the Mediterranean world --Geographical affinities with Northern Europe--Mountainous regions and basins--Extreme variety of aspects and climates: the main regions--Natural unity: the rôle of the depression of Poitou-- But unity chiefly a historical achievement--Resources: fertility overrated; harbours, rivers, and mineral wealth mediocre--But many-sided, well-balanced--The human factor predominant.
§ 2. THE RACE .--(a) Language.--Romanic or Neo-Latin--Flemish, Breton, Basque--North and South, langue d'oil and langue d'oc; supremacy of Northern French undisputed--French beyond the limits of France--Restricted significance of language affinity.

(b) Historical Ethnography.--Celtiberians, Gauls, Romans, Franks --Minor elements: Greeks and Arab--Constant infiltration -- Polish and Italian refugees--The Celtic problem as an example of ethnographic confusion.

§ 3. THE RACE (continued) .--(c) Anthropology.--Criteria--Limitations --The Nordic, Celto-Slavic, and Mediterranean races in France-- The French a racial medley--Their unity an act of will.

(d) Psychology of the French people.--Collective psychology may be a delusion--But has formative influence--(1) Cheerfulness-- (2) Nervous temperament--True of Paris and the South, not of France as a whole--(3) Sociability--(4) Intellectualism -- These traits the result of France's natural heterogeneity and self- conquered unity--They veil, but do not destroy, the common human substratum.

(e) Note: Race from the Eugenic Point of View--Racial decay?-- The alleged lowering of the stature--The falling birth-rate.

§ 4. THE TRADITION: ANCIENT REGIME AND REVOLUTION .--Dramatic character of French history--Real continuity.

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French Civilization in the Nineteenth Century: A Historical Introduction
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page 3
  • Note 7
  • Contents 9
  • Chapter I - The Foundations The Country--The Race--The Tradition 17
  • Bibliography 52
  • Chronological Table 54
  • Chapter II - Napoleon 55
  • Bibliography 86
  • Chronological Table 87
  • Chapteriii - Constitutional Monarchy 89
  • Bibliography 121
  • Chronological Table 122
  • Chapter IV - Napoleon Iii, 1848-70. 124
  • Chronological Table 149
  • Chapter V - The Third Republic, 1870-1913 150
  • Bibliography 184
  • Chronological Table 185
  • Chapter VI - The Social Question 186
  • Bibliography 219
  • Chronological Table 220
  • Chapter VII - Education 222
  • Bibliography 253
  • Chronological Table 254
  • Chapter VIII - The Religious Question 256
  • Chronological Table 289
  • Conclusion 292
  • Index 302
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