French Civilization in the Nineteenth Century: A Historical Introduction

By Albert Léon Guérard | Go to book overview

CHAPTERIII
CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY
§ 1. Unity and Divisions of the Period .--The Crisis ( 1814-16)--The first Restoration--Failure of the Bourbons--The Hundred Days; Waterloo--Embitter the feud between France and Europe--Give the start to the Napoleonic-democratic legend--The Second Restoration: the White Terror.
§ 2. The Restoration ( 1816-30).--Moderate liberalism under Decazes, 1816-20--Reaction under Villèle, 1821-28; Clericalism: the Jesuits, the "Congregation"--Revival of liberalism in Europe and in France-- Return to liberalism with Martignac, 1828-29--Reaction under Polignac, 1829-30--Fall of the Bourbons.

FROM 1814 to 1848 the Government of France was a constitutional monarchy, closely modelled upon that of England: even Napoleon, during his brief return to power, had to put up with principles and institutions imported from over the Channel. As the richest taxpayers alone had the right to vote, only one class, a limited aristocracy of wealth, the upper bourgeoisie, was directly represented. No radical change took place in the financial and foreign policies of France under three kings and two flags: it was a time of recuperation, economy, and peace. The Romantic movement was coextensive in duration with the political domination of the middle classes: it was its complement and a protest against it. In many respects, therefore, these thirty-four years of constitutional monarchy form a well- characterized unit.

But we should consider separately three main divisions of this period. First of all, the tragic introduction to three decades of calm: the years 1814-16 saw the fall of the Empire, the return of the Bourbons, the Hundred Days and Waterloo, the

-89-

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French Civilization in the Nineteenth Century: A Historical Introduction
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page 3
  • Note 7
  • Contents 9
  • Chapter I - The Foundations The Country--The Race--The Tradition 17
  • Bibliography 52
  • Chronological Table 54
  • Chapter II - Napoleon 55
  • Bibliography 86
  • Chronological Table 87
  • Chapteriii - Constitutional Monarchy 89
  • Bibliography 121
  • Chronological Table 122
  • Chapter IV - Napoleon Iii, 1848-70. 124
  • Chronological Table 149
  • Chapter V - The Third Republic, 1870-1913 150
  • Bibliography 184
  • Chronological Table 185
  • Chapter VI - The Social Question 186
  • Bibliography 219
  • Chronological Table 220
  • Chapter VII - Education 222
  • Bibliography 253
  • Chronological Table 254
  • Chapter VIII - The Religious Question 256
  • Chronological Table 289
  • Conclusion 292
  • Index 302
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