French Civilization in the Nineteenth Century: A Historical Introduction

By Albert Léon Guérard | Go to book overview

CHAPTER V
THE THIRD REPUBLIC, 1870-1913

§ 1. THE "TERRIBLE YEAR," 1870-71.
§ 1. The Terrible Year, 1870-71. --Causes of the Franco-German War-- The principle of nationalities--The policy of compensations or "tips" --Responsibility of the whole nation in the declaration, preparation, and conduct of the war--Sedan--Fall of the Empire.

Government of National Defence--Trochu--Gambetta--Fall of Paris--Peace--National Assembly.

The Commune: causes, character, evolution--Repression--Influence.

§ 2. Recuperation. Foundation of the Republic. Conquest of the Republic by the Republicans.--Financial recuperation: Thiers and the liberation of the territory--Public works--Military and diplomatic recovery--1878: the Exposition and the Berlin Congress; France resumes her position.

Constitutional reconstruction: monarchical majority, but divided-- MacMahon--Legitimist Pretender refuses to compromise--Constitution of 1875: provisional and "omnibus."

The crisis of the 16th of May, 1877--Failure of the Conservatives-- Resignation of MacMahon--Conquest of the Republic by the Republicans.

WE do not believe in the fatalistic delusion of "inevitable wars," but we must confess that no conflict was ever more difficult to avert than that between France and Prussia. "From the day of Sadowa the two nations were like two locomotives rushing towards each other on a single track." All parties in France and all generations, the old monarchy, the Republic, the Empire, held that the Rhine, the north-eastern boundary of ancient Gaul, should by right be that of France. This vague dream of centuries had become a reality from 1795 to 1814. In the minds of the French the annexation of the Rhine provinces was not an ordinary conquest nor even the resumption of a lost

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French Civilization in the Nineteenth Century: A Historical Introduction
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page 3
  • Note 7
  • Contents 9
  • Chapter I - The Foundations The Country--The Race--The Tradition 17
  • Bibliography 52
  • Chronological Table 54
  • Chapter II - Napoleon 55
  • Bibliography 86
  • Chronological Table 87
  • Chapteriii - Constitutional Monarchy 89
  • Bibliography 121
  • Chronological Table 122
  • Chapter IV - Napoleon Iii, 1848-70. 124
  • Chronological Table 149
  • Chapter V - The Third Republic, 1870-1913 150
  • Bibliography 184
  • Chronological Table 185
  • Chapter VI - The Social Question 186
  • Bibliography 219
  • Chronological Table 220
  • Chapter VII - Education 222
  • Bibliography 253
  • Chronological Table 254
  • Chapter VIII - The Religious Question 256
  • Chronological Table 289
  • Conclusion 292
  • Index 302
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