SYMBOLISM IN SOCIAL GROUPS
THE RECORD of promotion of José Martí as a national hero through literary production and representation in marble, stamps, and coins has been recorded in Chapter Four. Prior to Martí's renaissance the names that stand out are those of Gonzalo de Quesada y Aróstegui, Néstor Carbonell, Arturo R. de Carricarte, Rafael Argilagos, and Emilio Roig de Leuchsenring. These Cubans continued to write during the renaissance and were joined by Félix Lizaso, Jorge Mañach, Emeterio S. Santovenia, M. Isidro Méndez, Carlos Martínez-Fortún y Foyo, and Gonzalo de Quesada y Miranda. Add the statement by Quesada y Miranda that scarcely a Cuban intellectual exists who has not written or projected writing about Martí at some time or other, and you have a picture of intensive individual interest and effort in discussing the Apostle. Writing as individuals these persons have contributed to what will later be discussed as the cult of Martí. In their zeal to spread the gospel some of these individuals have founded and worked through public and private organizations. Martiana has been fostered through the media of politics, education, the press, fraternal organizations, youth groups, professional societies, patriotic clubs, and organizations devoted exclusively to Martí.
One of the first private organizations devoted entirely to Martí, the "Sociedad Martiniana," was established by Arturo R. de Carricarte in 1921. It was founded for the purpose of "exalting the memory