Persian dynasty which ruled until 330 B.C. (Cyrus 546 B.C.).
(Greek: akros, tapering; lithos, stone): statues of which the clothed parts are of wood and those parts left bare (head, feet, etc.) are of stone.
(Greek): pinnacles on the horizontal coping or parapets of a gable, to be found on buildings, reliefs or sepulchral stelae.
(Greek: decorative cluster of flowers): ornament of palmettes and a cluster of flowers.
columned hall (audience hall) of Achaemenid rulers.
rock of igneous origin formed by consolidation of molten rock-material. The colour varies from black to a darkish grey according to the mineral composition, which also determines the grainy texture of the rock.
Assyrian temple-like type of palace with columned hall, adopted from the Syro-Hittites.
(French): panel enclosing the name or symbol of a ruler (e.g., on vases and pitchers, but also on monuments).
enclosed chamber in a temple, containing the idol.
final phase of the neolithic.
(Italian): light and dark (term used in painting).
(Greek): a tunic of Semitic and Babylonian origin. It is made of linen or wool, sewn together along the sides and either sewn or fastened on the shoulders.
metal casting by the 'waste mould' process. The wax model is covered with clay. The wax is then melted out and molten metal poured into the cavity. Casting is completed by breaking away the mould.
cylinder-shaped seal measuring some 1-6 cm. in length, bearing hieroglyphs or pictorial representations in intaglio, which is rolled out on to a soft material to make an impression.
(Greek: successors): generals of Alexander the Great among whom his empire was divided after his death, Babylon being allotted to Seleucus.
greyish-green plutonic igneous rock.
a mineral allied to basalt of which the texture is medium-grained.
(Greek: race-course): entrance-passage to a sepulchral chamber.
alloy of gold and silver.
God of the Waters.
(Greek: strain): a term used in architecture to denote the curvature added to the taper of the shaft of a column in the Greek style.
figure in Mesopotamian mythology, frequently represented as a shepherd seized by an eagle.
faggot of brushwood bound together to support loose wails of earth, used in the construction of dikes, fortresses, etc.
term used in glass-making to denote the calcination of the materials of which glass is made.
precious or semi-precious stone bearing a deeply engraved image, hieroglyph, symbol, etc., in intaglio. The gem was used not only