CHAPTER III

ARCHITECTURE

IN dealing with the principles of Greek art, it is necessary to begin with architecture, and particularly with the temple.1 The temple, with the image of the deity which it enclosed, was a unity, including the best results of all the arts -- architecture, sculpture, painting, music, poetry. An examination of its character takes us straight to the heart of Greek religion and art, and indeed of Greek civilization.

Before examining the purposes and the structural ideas of the temple, it may be well to speak briefly of the external conditions under which it was evolved.

Influence of country and race. In the construction of modern cities and of great buildings little influence of the natural features of the surrounding landscape is to be observed. In this nature has receded and man is predominant. The same thing is in a great degree true of the vast palaces and temples of Babylon and Egypt, built in great plains, and making, as it were, a world independent of them. But in Greece and Asia

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1
It is not easy to refer beginners to works on Greek architecture. There is no satisfactory work in English from the present point of view. Anderson and Spiers' Greek and Roman Architecture gives facts rather than principles. The great German works of Bötticher, Uhde, Puchstein, and others are for specialists only. The best books for the general student are vol. vii of Perrot and Chipiez' L'Art dans l'Antiquité, A. Choisy Histoire de l'Architecture, vol. i, and E. Boutmy Philosophie de l'Architecture en Grèce. The last is in its way admirable; full of brilliant suggestions. I am greatly indebted to it in this chapter.

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