There are no exact figures of unemployment in the United States. It is easier to dispute the extent of the disease than to cure it, but it is probable that the American Federation of Labor's estimate of more than I0,000,ooo unemployed in the fall of 1934 is conservative. That is over one-fifth of all those who normally are gainfully employed. It is certain that the estimate of the Department of Labor of an increase in unemployment of 3 per cent in July, 1934, is conservative.
We have more accurate figures of relief. In June, 1934, in New York City alone, 354,153 families were on relief, an increase of 77,ooo over June, 1933. In the United States 5,450,000 persons were receiving pay from the Federal Government on one form or another of relief projects. (This is exclusive of government employees, the Army, the Navy and the Marine Corps, the veterans and civilian pensioners—nearly a million of them—and, of course, of the corporations and individuals in receipt of Reconstruction Finance Loans and tariff subsidies!) The classes of relief at present are emergency relief of food and money administered in cooperation with state and local agencies, emergency work on roads, etc., and the Civilian Conservation Corps of young men at work mostly in the woods. These groups totaled 4,850,000. The remainder—only 600,000—were employed on public works, a disappointing showing. (A later figure set the number at 675,000.) But some of the emergency work projects as well as the public works may be regarded as far better than work made simply for the pur