Studies in English Commerce and Exploration in the Reign of Elizabeth

By Albert Lindsay Rowland; George Born Manhart | Go to book overview

CHAPTER XII
THE NEW CAPITULATIONS

This auspicious reception, however, was the introduction to a long series of diplomatic struggles with the French Ambassador which are an interesting counterpart in miniature of the strife between these rival nations in the commercial warfare of the French and English East India Companies over a century later. Lello had inherited from his predecessor several policies which made him the natural enemy of Breves. The first of these was the attempt to establish peace between the Ottoman and Roman emperors which Barton had so earnestly made and to which Lello had devoted much of his time before he received his full credentials. Another was the so-called "consulage of forestiers"; the question as to which of the two nations, France or England, should exercise protective rights over other Christian nations trading at Porte and which should collect, in connection therewith, the "consulage" or duty charged for the maintenance of the Ambassador and his agents. This matter had become acute in relation to the Dutch who were rapidly becoming the commercial rivals of Portugal and England in both the far and the near East. There is no doubt but that originally the Flemish, like all other foreigners except the Venetians, must have traded with Turkey under the French flag. This was a provision of the famous Capitulations secured from the Sultan by Francis I. When Harborne made an independent treaty for his country, England's became the first deflection

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