Master Bronzes: Selected from Museums and Collections in America; February, 1937, the Buffalo Fine Arts Academy, Albright Art Gallery, Buffalo, New York

By Albright Art Gallery | Go to book overview

AN INTRODUCTION TO BRONZE STATUETTES
OF EGYPT

The term "bronzes", as applied to Egyptian sculpture in metal, is generally rather loosely used, and frequently no attempt is made to differentiate between the various alloys employed. This situation is due primarily to the difficulty of distinguishing in field excavation between copper, true bronze, and copper-lead alloy, the three principal materials used. It is only occasionally that, after an object has been deposited in a museum, proper analysis is made and the results published. Thus in discussing Egyptian bronzes, it should be understood that objects are meant which have as a major constituent copper, whether or not alloyed with tin, lead, or other metals.

A copper ore (malachite) was known to the Egyptians from the earliest times, being used as an eye paint in the Early Predynastic Period. It was obtained from the Sinai Peninsula, where the mines at Maghâra and Serâbît el Khâdim yielded malachite and turquoise. The ore was smelted for metallic copper in the First Dynasty, probably even as early as the Middle Predynastic Period, 1 and the mines were worked till at least as late as the Twentieth Dynasty. 2 Another source, tapped principally subsequent to the Middle Kingdom, was the eastern desert between the Nile and the Red Sea, where there are several mines showing evidence of ancient use, but little or no inscriptional material making it possible to fix the dates of working. During the Empire a considerable supply of copper (and bronze) was obtained as tribute and booty, notably from Syria and western Asia.

Bronze, an alloy of copper and tin, was used commonly in Egypt from the Middle Kingdom on. Its possible use prior to that date is supported by a few somewhat uncertain examples, but if actually used it appears to have been rare and of only sporadic occurrence. The virtual absence of bronze in the earlier periods accords well with the lack of evidence for any local source from which the Egyptians might have obtained the tin necessary for production of the alloy. On the other hand bronze is recorded at Ur in Mesopotamia prior to 3000 B.C.3 a thousand years before it became common in Egypt, and authorities seem agreed that its discovery and first use are to be attributed to some foreign land. Opinions as to where this may have been vary greatly: the presence of bronze at Ur lends credence to a source of the ingredients in Persia, 4 and it seems more probable 5 that the mountain region of Kesrwan, not far from Byblos, was the principal district from which early Egyptian bronze was obtained.

In addition to copper and bronze the Egyptians, in the later historical periods, frequently made use of an alloy containing a proportion of lead. From Predynastic times lead ore (galena) had been in common use as an eye paint, and there are numerous deposits of the mineral in the eastern desert, so that the material was easily obtainable throughout Egyptian history.

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Master Bronzes: Selected from Museums and Collections in America; February, 1937, the Buffalo Fine Arts Academy, Albright Art Gallery, Buffalo, New York
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page *
  • Order of Contents *
  • Foreword *
  • Bronze *
  • Selected Bibliography: *
  • Selected Bibliography: *
  • The Three-Dimensional Bronzes of Iran *
  • Bronzes of the Near East *
  • An Introduction to Bronze Statuettes of the Far East *
  • Bronzes of the Far East *
  • Bronzes of the Far East (continued) *
  • Bronzes of Th E Near East Continued *
  • Bronzes of the Far East (continued) *
  • An Introduction to Bronze Statuettes of Egypt *
  • Bronzes of Egypt *
  • An Introduction to Greek, Etruscan and Roman Bronzes *
  • Greek, Etruscan, and Roman Bronzes *
  • An Introduction to Bronze Statuettes of India and Farther India *
  • Bronzes of India and Farther India *
  • Mediaeval Bronzes *
  • Mediaeval Bronzes *
  • An Introduction to Bronze Statuettes of the Renaissance *
  • Bronzes of the Renaissance *
  • Modern Bronzes *
  • Modern Bronzes *
  • Special Categories *
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 0

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.