Poetic Drama: An Anthology of Plays in Verse from the Ancient Greek to the Modern American

By Alfred Kreymborg | Go to book overview

PREFACE TO OEDIPUS COLONEUS

WHEN PERICLES declared that "the individual Athenian in his own person seems to have the power of adapting himself to the most varied forms of action with the utmost versatility and grace," he likewise defined the spirit of Sophocies. Most popular of the Greek tragedians, he was also the most productive. During his long lifetime ( 495-406 B.C.) he composed about a hundred and thirty plays of which eighteen won the first prize and none was ever awarded less than the second. Ideal representative of the Golden Age, he mastered his audience by making the gods more human, ennobling humanity, and bringing to Athenian drama a perfection of form and serenity of mood no later playwright ever equaled. Where Aeschylus dealt in titans, Sophocles modeled heroes and, according to Aristotle, said, "I draw men as they ought to be--Euripides drew them as they are." With the introduction of the third actor, about a hundred years after Thespis had introduced the first, and the greater use of dialogue and a corresponding subordination of the chorus, Sophocles opened the door to Euripides and the modern drama. He likewise introduced and perfected irony, a dramatic device through which an audience was made aware of the tragic fate of characters blindly involved in their own fate. While the actors, in relief, were engaged in their problems and conflicts, the audience sat in a detached judgment of the manner in which the actors faced the unfolding situations and climax. Contrary to modern developments of this device, auditors were never left in the dark or attacked with a sudden surprise. Sophocles held his people in the complete regard they deserved and was never tempted to reduce poetic drama from an ideal concern and perfection.

From his twenty-eighth year, when he defeated the veteran Aeschylus in an annual competition, to the writing of Oedipus Coloneus in his ninetieth year, Sophocles worked in the theater and staged his own plays. A thoroughly sociable figure in comparison with Euripides, he was apparently much less affected by the Peloponnesian War. From the early Antigone and Electra to the Oedipus Tyrannus, composed in his seventieth year, and from that glorious work to the grave, Sophocles never lost his masterly touch and heavenly tenderness. The inhuman horrors of the Oedipus theme, overshadowing all others, are raised to a plane where the heart and mind understand without misjudging mankind. And nothing can be more moving and less sensational than the sequel to Oepidus Tyrannus, in which the self-blinded King, harassed by undutiful sons who are battling over Thebes, is led toward Athens by his exquisite daughters, Antigone and Ismene, and finds true peace with Nature in Colonus, birthplace of the poet. The scene foreshadows Lear and the faithful Cordelia and marks the final step in Sophocles' serene beliefs. Purified through suffering, Oedipus walks with Death and the gods in an immortal sphere where the dignity of man is triumphant. Sophocles survived Euripides by just a few months and Oedipus Coloneus survived its author by just a few years. It was produced by his grandson near the close of the fifth century, the greatest in human history.

-68-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Poetic Drama: An Anthology of Plays in Verse from the Ancient Greek to the Modern American
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Acknowledgments vi
  • Contents vii
  • Lines Before the Curtain 1
  • Introduction the Story of Poetic Drama 3
  • Preface to Agamemnon 45
  • Preface 45
  • Preface to Oedipus Coloneus 68
  • Preface 68
  • Oedipus Coloneus 70
  • Preface to Ion 94
  • Preface 94
  • Ion 96
  • Preface to the Acharnians 122
  • Preface 122
  • Preface to Oriental Plays 146
  • Preface 146
  • The Chalk Circle 148
  • Act I 150
  • Act I 158
  • Act I 164
  • Act IV 168
  • Nakamitsu (manju) 174
  • Preface to Medieval Plays 178
  • The Mystery of Adam 180
  • Abraham, Melchisedec, and Isaac 194
  • The Second Shepherds' Play 199
  • The Second Shepherds' Play 208
  • The Second Shepherds' Play 218
  • Preface to Tamburlaine the Great 223
  • Preface 223
  • The First Part of Tamburlaine the Great 225
  • Act I 225
  • Act I 225
  • Act I 227
  • Act I 230
  • Act I 230
  • Act I 231
  • Act I 232
  • Act I 232
  • Act I 233
  • Act I 234
  • Act I 235
  • Act III 236
  • Scene II 236
  • Scene II 238
  • Scene II 241
  • Scene II 241
  • Scene II 242
  • Scene III 243
  • Scene III 244
  • Scene III 245
  • Scene III 245
  • Preface to Measure for Measure 252
  • Preface 252
  • Measure for Measure 254
  • Scene IV 258
  • Scene IV 259
  • Scene IV 259
  • Scene II 263
  • Scene III 265
  • Scene III 266
  • Scene III 268
  • Scene III 268
  • Scene III 271
  • Scene III 274
  • Scene III 274
  • Scene III 275
  • Scene III 278
  • Scene III 280
  • Scene III 281
  • Scene III 281
  • Scene III 281
  • Scene III 281
  • Preface to Volpone 289
  • Preface 289
  • Volpone or the Fox 291
  • Act I 292
  • Act I 292
  • Act I 301
  • Act I 301
  • Act I 306
  • Scene III 307
  • Act III 309
  • Act III 309
  • Act III 310
  • Act III 313
  • Act III 313
  • Scene V 314
  • Scene VI 314
  • Scene VI 318
  • Scene VI 318
  • Scene VI 322
  • Scene VI 327
  • Scene VI 327
  • Scene VI 331
  • Scene III 333
  • Scene IV 333
  • Scene IV 334
  • Scene IV 335
  • Scene IV 336
  • Scene IV 336
  • Preface to a New Way to Pay Old Debts 340
  • Preface 340
  • A New Way to Pay Old Debts 341
  • Act I 341
  • Act II 346
  • Act II 348
  • Act II 348
  • Act II 350
  • Act II 353
  • Act III 355
  • Scene II 356
  • Scene II 361
  • Scene II 362
  • Scene II 362
  • Scene II 365
  • Scene II 367
  • Scene II 369
  • Scene II 369
  • Scene II 375
  • Preface to the White Devil 376
  • Preface 376
  • The White Devil; Or, Vittoria Corombona 378
  • Scene II 379
  • Scene II 384
  • Scene II 384
  • Scene II 388
  • Scene II 389
  • Scene II 390
  • Act III 392
  • Scene II 398
  • Scene II 400
  • Scene II 400
  • Scene II 403
  • Act V 406
  • Scene II 409
  • Scene II 410
  • Scene V 417
  • Scene VI 417
  • Preface to the Sheep Well 422
  • Preface 422
  • The Sheep Well 424
  • Act II 432
  • Preface to Cinna 449
  • Preface 449
  • Cinna or the Mercy of Augustus 451
  • Scene II 452
  • Scene II 453
  • Scene II 454
  • Scene II 455
  • Scene II 455
  • Scene II 458
  • Act III 459
  • Scene II 460
  • Scene III 460
  • Scene III 461
  • Scene V 463
  • Act IV 463
  • Scene II 463
  • Scene II 463
  • Scene II 464
  • Scene II 465
  • Scene II 466
  • Scene II 466
  • Scene II 466
  • Scene II 468
  • Scene III 469
  • Preface to Athaliah 471
  • Preface 471
  • Athaliah a Tragedy Founded Upon Holy Scripture 473
  • Scene II 475
  • Scene II 476
  • Scene II 476
  • Scene II 477
  • Scene II 477
  • Scene II 477
  • Scene II 478
  • Scene II 478
  • Scene II 478
  • Scene II 480
  • Scene II 480
  • Scene II 482
  • Scene II 482
  • Scene II 483
  • Scene II 483
  • Scene II 484
  • Scene III 484
  • Scene III 485
  • Scene III 485
  • Scene III 486
  • Scene III 486
  • Scene VIII 488
  • Act IV 488
  • Act IV 488
  • Act IV 489
  • Act IV 489
  • Act IV 490
  • Act IV 491
  • Act IV 491
  • Act IV 492
  • Act IV 492
  • Scene II 493
  • Scene III 494
  • Scene IV 494
  • Scene V 494
  • Scene V 495
  • Scene VII 496
  • Scene VIII 496
  • Preface to the Misanthrope 497
  • Preface 497
  • The Misanthrope 499
  • Scene II 502
  • Scene II 504
  • Scene II 505
  • Scene II 505
  • Scene II 506
  • Scene II 506
  • Scene II 506
  • Scene II 506
  • Scene VI 509
  • Scene VII 509
  • Act III 509
  • Act III 509
  • Act III 510
  • Act III 510
  • Act III 511
  • Act III 511
  • Act III 512
  • Act IV 514
  • Scene II 515
  • Scene III 515
  • Scene III 517
  • Scene III 518
  • Scene III 518
  • Scene III 519
  • Scene III 520
  • Scene III 520
  • Scene III 521
  • Scene III 521
  • Scene VII 522
  • Scene VIII 522
  • Preface to Torquato Tasso 523
  • Preface 523
  • Torquato Tasso a Drama in Five Acts 525
  • Scene II 527
  • Scene II 529
  • Scene II 531
  • Scene II 533
  • Scene II 533
  • Scene II 537
  • Scene III 537
  • Scene V 542
  • Act III 542
  • Scene II 542
  • Scene II 542
  • Scene II 545
  • Scene II 545
  • Scene II 548
  • Scene II 548
  • Scene II 548
  • Scene II 548
  • Scene II 551
  • Act V 555
  • Scene II 556
  • Scene II 557
  • Scene IV 558
  • Scene V 559
  • Preface to the Death of Wallenstein 562
  • Preface 562
  • The Death of Wallenstein 564
  • Scene II 565
  • Scene III 565
  • Scene III 566
  • Scene III 567
  • Scene III 570
  • Scene III 570
  • Scene III 573
  • Scene III 573
  • Scene III 574
  • Scene III 576
  • Scene IV 577
  • Scene V 577
  • Scene V 578
  • Scene VII 581
  • Act III 582
  • Scene II 582
  • Scene II 582
  • Scene II 583
  • Scene II 584
  • Scene II 586
  • Scene VI 587
  • Scene VII 587
  • Scene VII 588
  • Scene VII 588
  • Scene XI 590
  • Scene XII 590
  • Scene XIII 590
  • Scene XIII 591
  • Scene XIII 591
  • Scene XIII 593
  • Scene XIII 593
  • Scene XIII 594
  • Scene XIX 596
  • Scene XX 596
  • Scene XX 597
  • Scene XX 598
  • Scene XX 598
  • Scene XX 599
  • Scene XX 599
  • Scene XX 599
  • Scene XX 601
  • Scene XX 602
  • Scene XX 602
  • Scene XX 602
  • Scene VII 605
  • Scene IX 606
  • Scene IX 607
  • Scene IX 608
  • Scene IX 609
  • Scene IX 609
  • Scene IX 610
  • Scene IX 610
  • Scene IX 610
  • Scene IX 610
  • Scene IX 613
  • Scene IX 615
  • Scene IX 616
  • Scene IX 617
  • Scene IX 618
  • Scene IX 618
  • Scene IX 618
  • Scene IX 619
  • Scene IX 619
  • Scene IX 620
  • Preface to the ] 621
  • Preface 621
  • E Cenci 622
  • Act I 622
  • Scene III 625
  • Act II 627
  • Act II 627
  • Act II 629
  • Act III 631
  • Scene II 635
  • Scene II 636
  • Scene II 636
  • Scene II 638
  • Scene II 639
  • Scene II 640
  • Act V 643
  • Scene II 644
  • Scene II 646
  • Scene II 648
  • Preface to the White Saviour 650
  • Preface 650
  • The White Saviour a Dramatic Fantasy 651
  • Second Scene 653
  • Second Scene 657
  • Second Scene 662
  • Second Scene 665
  • Sixth Scene 671
  • Seventh Scene 676
  • Seventh Scene 683
  • Seventh Scene 689
  • Seventh Scene 693
  • Seventh Scene 698
  • Preface to the Last Night of Don Juan 702
  • Preface 702
  • The Last Night of Don Juan 703
  • Preface to the King's Threshold 726
  • Preface 726
  • Preface to Gruach 740
  • Preface 740
  • Gruach by Gordon Bottomley 741
  • Preface to the Dog Beneath the Skin 757
  • Preface 757
  • Act I 760
  • Scene II 765
  • Scene II 767
  • Scene II 768
  • Scene II 771
  • Scene II 773
  • Scene II 778
  • Scene III 781
  • Act III 788
  • Scene II 789
  • Scene III 793
  • Scene IV 793
  • Scene V 799
  • Epilogue 804
  • Preface to the Death of Eve 806
  • Preface 806
  • Preface to Aria Da Capo 818
  • Preface 818
  • Preface to Hole in the Wall 826
  • Preface 826
  • Preface to the Fall of the City 832
  • Preface 832
  • Preface to Shenandoah 842
  • Preface 842
  • Supplementary Lists and Reading 853
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 858

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.