Toward a Revolution in Military Affairs? Defense and Security at the Dawn of the Twenty-First Century

By Thierry Gongora; Harald Von Riekhoff | Go to book overview

viewed as policy by other means. Disregarding these as premature forms of information warfare, and associating EW techniques with whatever ends they support (e.g., C2W, IBW), three forms remain: C2W, IBW, and psychological warfare, each of which can stand as a separate discipline. As it so happens, command-and-control systems are vulnerable because they tend to be centralized, while IBW systems are vulnerable because they rely on communications to unify a decentralized sensor architecture. C2W and IBW are linked in that EW techniques can be used against both command and intelligence systems.

Third, most of what U.S. forces can usefully do in information warfare will be defensive, rather than offensive. Much that is labelled information warfare is simply not doable--at least under rules of engagement the United States will likely observe for the foreseeable future. Information systems are more important to U.S. forces than they are likely to be to opposing forces; what the United States might do in offensive operations is limited by the restrictive rules of engagement under which it operates, and because the United States's open information systems are by their nature more likely to be understood than systems of other countries.


NOTES
1.
Although the information systems required to manage logistics are substantial, they enter into information warfare only if and when an opponent targets the logistics information system to degrade it; similarly, weather collection systems enter information warfare only if they are subject to attack. By contrast, IBW systems are part of information warfare because they are used to read a target that would avoid being read and that often has ways (e.g., cover, concealment, and deception) to distort readings at the source.
2.
MOP-30 covers, "the integrated use of operations security, military deception, psychological operations, electronic warfare, and physical destruction, mutually supported by intelligence, to deny information to, influence, degrade or destroy adversary C2 Capabilities while protecting friendly C2 capabilities against such actions."
3.
Command effectiveness used to require commanders to oversee and thus remain near the range of combat. In World War I wireline communications enabled commanders to operate beyond the range of enemy arms. Later, the airplane and missile returned the commanders to the target zone.
4.
By the Gulf War's end, the number of communications targets left to attack was larger than at the beginning; the Iraqis had many communications systems, more perhaps than even they were aware of, from radio systems that Westem oil contractors had left in place to rural telephone systems that routed around major cities.
5.
In an important exception to that generalization, the Internet has become a conduit for a large chunk of the DOD's nonsensitive but in bulk form, essential logistics traffic.

-60-

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