Roosevelt, from Munich to Pearl Harbor: A Study in the Creation of a Foreign Policy

By Basil Rauch | Go to book overview

8.
"Behind Walls of Sand"

THE FALL OF FRANCE IN JUNE, 1940, CAUSED A DECISIVE turn in the history of American foreign policy. The worst prophecies made by the Wilsonian generation of internationalists concerning the consequences of a failure of collective security had to come true before Americans would believe them. When the powerful and savage Nazi war machine stood on the Atlantic shore and promised to satisfy fully the American appetite for isolation, Americans in majority finally understood that isolation was not a cure-all but a deadly danger. They decided that their institutions and their liberties could not thrive in isolation.


Greenland and Iceland Threatened

On April 2, Hitler secretly ordered the invasion of Norway and Denmark for a week later. The Department of State received on the same day reports of the Nazi preparations. The Norwegian Minister to the United States, Wilhelm Morgenstierne, suggested that American representations be made to support his country's neutrality. This was forestalled by the surprise attack on Norwegian ports at dawn on April 9 by Nazi troops hidden in freighters flying the British flag. Denmark was occupied at the same moment without fighting. Hull satisfied himself that the invaders had set out before April 8, when the British decision to prevent violation of Norwegian neutral waters by German ore boats provided Hitler with his official "excuse." President Roosevelt ordered the freezing of Norwegian and Danish credits in the United

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Roosevelt, from Munich to Pearl Harbor: A Study in the Creation of a Foreign Policy
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Also by Basil Rauch ii
  • Title Page iii
  • Preface vii
  • Contents xi
  • 1 - Introduction 1
  • 2 - Roosevelt and the "New Neutrality 13
  • 4 - The Primacy of Foreign Danger 80
  • 5 - The Fight Against the Arm Embargo: Failure 102
  • 6- The Fight Against the Arms Embargo: Success 128
  • 7 - The "Phony" War 160
  • 8 - "Behind Walls of Sand" 193
  • 9 - "Because America Exists" 227
  • 10 - The Vichy Policy 272
  • 11 - Lend Lease 289
  • 12 - The Convoy Conundrum 314
  • 13 - America and Russia 347
  • 14 - The Atlantic Conference 358
  • 15 - Roosevelt and Japan 375
  • 16 - "Shoot on Sight" 409
  • 17 - Roosevelt and Konoye 431
  • 18 - Roosevelt and Pearl Harbor 455
  • Epilogue 494
  • Reference Notes 497
  • Index 515
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