Roosevelt, from Munich to Pearl Harbor: A Study in the Creation of a Foreign Policy

By Basil Rauch | Go to book overview

13.
America and Russia

HITLER'S INVASION OF RUSSIA WAS NO SURPRISE TO THE Roosevelt administration. It had warned the Soviet government of the impending attack as early as January, 1941, as part of its effort to build up the united front of powers opposing the chief aggressor nations. This action is significant evidence of the administration's lack of prejudice regarding internal political regimes and willingness to work with any government that would oppose aggression. Few critics of the Roosevelt administration objected to its "appeasement" of both Communist and Fascist governments. The fact that the administration dealt with or gave support to Communist Russia as well as Falangist Spain, Vichy France as well as Communist China is evidence that it regarded the nature of a government's internal regime as a secondary consideration compared with the nature of its foreign policy; that it made the only distinction among governments which will serve the policy of collective security: the distinction between aggressors and their victims.

In the case of Russia, Roosevelt and Hull clung to this distinction as the decisive one in spite of grave tests of their conviction. The Soviet leaders, in the opinion of most observers in free countries, had helped to precipitate the war itself by failing to understand that the British and French people would not allow their governments to betray the pledges made to countries east of Hitler after he occupied Prague in March, 1939, and by opening the door to Hitler with the Nazi-Soviet Pact of August, 1939- This, together with seizure of East Poland, the Baltic states, and Bessarabia, and the war against Finland placed the Soviet Union in the

-347-

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Roosevelt, from Munich to Pearl Harbor: A Study in the Creation of a Foreign Policy
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Also by Basil Rauch ii
  • Title Page iii
  • Preface vii
  • Contents xi
  • 1 - Introduction 1
  • 2 - Roosevelt and the "New Neutrality 13
  • 4 - The Primacy of Foreign Danger 80
  • 5 - The Fight Against the Arm Embargo: Failure 102
  • 6- The Fight Against the Arms Embargo: Success 128
  • 7 - The "Phony" War 160
  • 8 - "Behind Walls of Sand" 193
  • 9 - "Because America Exists" 227
  • 10 - The Vichy Policy 272
  • 11 - Lend Lease 289
  • 12 - The Convoy Conundrum 314
  • 13 - America and Russia 347
  • 14 - The Atlantic Conference 358
  • 15 - Roosevelt and Japan 375
  • 16 - "Shoot on Sight" 409
  • 17 - Roosevelt and Konoye 431
  • 18 - Roosevelt and Pearl Harbor 455
  • Epilogue 494
  • Reference Notes 497
  • Index 515
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