"It showed a sign of Intelligence": Garry Kasparov quoted by Janine Zuniga, Associated Press, May 7, 1997.
"Who invented the computer?": Bob Levey, Washington Post, May 29, 1998.
"So what? Won't we know?": Herbert Kelleher, interview by author, Dallas, Texas, 1998.
There are several good sources on the early history of computing devices, especially Herman Goldstine, The Computer from Pascal to von Neumann ( Princeton, NJ.: Princeton University Press, 1972) and A History of Computing in the Twentieth Century, edited by Nicholas Metropolis , Jack Howlett, and Gian-Carlo Rota ( New York: Academic Press, 1980). Other valuable resources are Stan Augarten, Bit by Bit, Martin Campbell-Kelly and William Aspray, Computer. A History of the Information Age ( New York: HarperCollins, 1996), Paul E. Ceruzzi, Reckoners: The Prehistory of the Digital Computer from Relays to the Stored Program Concept, 1935-1945 ( Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1983), and Howard Rheingold, Tools for Thought ( New York: Simon and Schuster, 1985).