Music Education and Schooling
In Part One of this book I proposed that if we want to think reasonably about music and music education, it is a mistake to begin with pieces of music conceived as autonomous objects. Musical works result from human actions informed by histories and standards of musical practice; they are enmeshed in and derive their nature and significance from their contexts of production and use. Even the structural properties of musical works owe their characteristic features to the reflections of practitioners and theorists who work at particular times in the history of their music cultures. Accordingly, musical works are thoroughly artistic-cultural constructions. And MUSIC, considered globally, is the multifarious human practice of making diverse kinds of music for different kinds of listeners.
In Part Two I concentrated on explaining the natures and values of musicing, listening, and musical works. I proposed that all forms of musicing depend on a multidimensional form of knowledge called musicianship. I then proposed that music listening involves the covert construction of intermusical and intramusical information, relationships, and meanings by means of the same kinds of knowing that make up musicianship: procedural, formal, informal, impressionistic, and supervisory musical knowledge. Musicianship and listenership are thus two sides of the same coin; the knowings required to listen effectively for the musical works of a given practice are the same essential knowings required to make the music of that practice.
In the next section of this inquiry I explained why some musical works can be cognized as expressional or representational and why making and listening for music always involves cultural-ideological information of some kind. In this view, making and/or listening for musical works always involves cognizing more than purely auditory information. Works of music are multidimensional "thought generators."
But what explains the existence and significance of musical practices and musical works? An examination of the tendencies of human consciousness leads to the conclusion that a central goal of each self is to order and strengthen the self. As human beings, we have an innate desire to deploy our conscious powers to