Japanese Corporate Philanthropy

By Nancy R. London | Go to book overview

however, and more and more articles, papers, and seminars are being devoted to the topic. Nonetheless, at present, both factual and analytic materials on the subject are scarce. Where such materials do exist, I have used them. My research, however, was predominantly a series of interviews with foundations, corporations, government officials, fund givers, and fund seekers. The result is a compilation of impressions, anecdotes, and opinions, both mine and those of the many people who were kind enough to answer my lengthy and no doubt frequently baffling questions.


Notes
1.
In 1988, Japan's ODA totaled $9.1 billion on a net disbursement basis, whereas the United States' ODA totaled $9.8 billion. Hideharu Thrii, "Subsidy for Private Aid Units Raises Hope of Effectiveness, Fear of Control," Japan Times, September 5, 1989, p. 3.
2.
Not surprisingly, the mounting Japanese direct investment in Asia over the past several years has increased the amount of corporate philanthropic activity in the region. Thus, although the United States still receives the major part of Japanese international philanthropic giving, Asia is consuming an ever-growing percentage. See Chapter 7.
3.
As detailed further in Chapter 6, to determine the contributions targets of its member companies, the Keidanren often uses a percentage test of one kind or another, such as percentage of sales or percentage of production. However, the relevant percentages, and even the fact of their use, are rather closely guarded -- certainly never publicized -- by the Keidanren.

The notion of using such a percentage basis, as proposed by Minolta and adopted by Matsushita, may derive either from this practice by the Keidanren or from the percentage-giving goals established by certain U.S. companies. In the latter case, the relevant measure is usually 1 or 2 percent of "pretax income" rather than a percentage of sales.

4.
It is interesting that Matsushita Electric, which not only has committed to such generous direct funding but also has established a foundation in the United States with assets of about $11 million, is the largest single Japanese employer in the United States, with over eight thousand employees.
5.
Tadashi Yamamoto and Takayoshi Amenomori, "Japanese Private Philanthropy in an Interdependent World" (paper prepared for Organized Private Philanthropy in East and Southeast Asia, a seminar held in Bang

-8-

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Japanese Corporate Philanthropy
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Preface vii
  • Acknowledgments ix
  • Contents xi
  • 1 - Introduction 3
  • Notes 8
  • 2 - Themes and Corollaries 10
  • Notes 20
  • 3 - The Development of the Nonprofit System 24
  • Notes 32
  • 4 - Establishing a Foundation Law and Practice 36
  • Notes 58
  • 5 - Taxation 66
  • Notes 90
  • 6 - The Philanthropic Process -- Management, Operation, and Grant Making 99
  • Notes 119
  • 7 - Recent Developments and Future Directions 123
  • Notes 129
  • Index 133
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